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Musical Context of Bach Cantatas
Motets & Chorales for 6th Sunday after Trinity

 

Readings: Epistle: Romans 6: 3-11; Gospel: Matthew 5: 20-26

Dates in the lifetime of J.S. Bach, including works composed for the event

Motets & Chorales for the 6th Sunday after Trinity (Trinity 6)

Douglas Cowling wrote (July 25, 2011):
THE MUSICAL CONTEXT OF BACH'S CANTATAS:
MOTETS AND CHORALES FOR THE SIXTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

SOURCES:

* BACH'S HYMN BOOK:
Jürgen Grimm, "Das neu [?] Leipziger Gesangbuch des Gottfried Vopelius
(Leipzig 1682)",
Berlin: Merseburger, 1969.
ML 3168 G75

* BACH'S MOTET COLLECTION:
Otto Riemer, "Erhard Bodenschatz und sein Florilegium Portense"
Schünigen: Kaminsky,1927
ML 410 B67R4

Dissertation on Bodenschatz Collection (downloadable)

NOTES:

* "Claritas Domini" rather bizarrely takes the angelic message to the shepherds as its text. Christmas in June?

1) MOTETS for Introit, Before Sermon at mass and vespers for Choir II, and During Communion:
i) "Claritas Domini" (8 voices) - Caspar Vicentius (1580-1624)
Flemish composer. He was civic organist of Speyer in c1602-1615, and after a period in Worms became organist of Würzburg Cathedral in 1618. He edited the first three volumes (1611-13) of the motet collection Promptuarium musicum with Abraham Schadaeus and compiled the fourth (1617) himself; the motets include 25 of his own, which are mainly conservative in style.

Edition of Motets: http://tinyurl.com/3cpmqwy

Text: Luke 2:9-12
"... the glory of the Lord shone around them, and they were terrified. 10
But the angel said to them, ³Do not be afraid. I bring you good news that will cause great joy for all the people."

i) "Ecce Quam Bonum" (8 voices) - Unknown Composer
Text: Psalm 133

Text: "How good and pleasant it is
when God¹s people live together in unity!
It is like precious oil poured on the head,
running down on the beard,
running down on Aaron¹s beard,
down on the collar of his robe.
It is as if the dew of Hermon
were falling on Mount Zion.
For there the LORD bestows his blessing,
even life forevermore."

Comparison: Hassler "Missa Ecce Quam Bonum". Sample: Amazon.com

2) HYMN OF DAY (de tempore)
"Es ist das Heil uns kommen her". Sample: Amazon.com

3) PULPIT HYMN:
"Herr Jesu Christ, dich uns wend"
Translation: http://www.cyberhymnal.org/htm/l/j/ljcbpnow.htm
Sample: http://tinyurl.com/3qzgq8o

4) CHORALES for Pulpit and Communion Hymns:
"Mensch willtu leben"
"Durch Adams Fall"
"Dies sind die heilige zehn Gebot"
"Ich ruf zu dir Herr Jesu Christ". Sample: http://tinyurl.com/3ngle93

 

Trinity +6 Chorales

William Hoffman wrote (July 27, 2011):
As the first quarter of Bach's Trinity Time Sundays (1-6) closes, it becomes apparent that a repertory of chorales is being established to be presented throughout the entire second half or the <omne tempore> of the church year. This growing collection of hymns relates to the doctrines and teachings of the Christian Church as promulgated by the Lutheran Reformers and found particularly in the music of Bach. To build on the congregation's understanding of the Christian Faith, various types of chorales are introduced, particularly the Catechism teachings of Martin Luther, communion hymns and psalm hymns.

At the same time, the librettists of Bach's cantatas did not always exactingly follow the hymnals' preferences. It is thought that Bach probably had a certain degree of flexibility in the choice of particular hymns, usually to close the cantatas. When Bach first began to compose service cantatas on a regular (monthly) basis in Weimar in early 1714, he previously had relied primarily on established, published texts of Pastor Erdmann Neumeister and Georg Christian Lehms, emphasizing basic Lutheran thought in Italian aria madrigalian and secco blank-verse recitative style with some well-known closing chorales.

Now, Bach turned to his Weimar Court colleague, poet Salomo Franck, who conceived his works as descriptive yet didactic musical sermons designed to instill progressive yet somewhat rigid orthodoxy. This is followed in Franck's cantata texts using the Trinity Time hymn, "Es ist das Heil uns kommen her" (Salvation has come to us) for the Bach Cantatas BWV 155 and BWV 186 (see below, Hymn of the Day). Interestingly, Franck did not always rigidly adhere to the service assigned hymn, as later Bach and his Leipzig librettists likewise remained flexible.

At the same time, there are occasions when no cantata chorale is necessary or it is optional. Such is the case in Leipzig for the 6th Sunday after Trinity. In 1726, for Cantata BWV 170, Bach chose a Lehms 1711 text, "Vergnügte Ruh, beliebte Seelenlust" (Pleasant rest, beloved stirring of the soul), with three contemplative arias (the first two in ritornello repeat form, the last in da-capo) interspersed with two terse recitatives constituting a symmetrical five-movement palindrome or diamond shape with no concluding chorale.

The choice of chorale to close the 1726 double bill, Johann Ludwig Bach's Cantata JLB 7, "Ich will meinen Geist in auch geben" (I will my spirit in likewise give), No. 9, could not be determined. Picander's text for the 1728 cantata, P.49 "Gott, gib mir ein versöhnlich" (God, give me a reconciliation) text only, also has no chorale. It is assumed that Picander, in creating an annual cantata cycle of texts for Bach, had the approval at least of church authorities, and possibly of the Town Council, which reviewed the actual service libretto books before publication.

Interestingly, Bach in 1724 kept in reserve the appropriate Sunday chorale with parahrased text, "Es ist das Heil uns kommen her," which he belatedly, finally wrought as a chorale cantata, BWV 9, probably in 1734. Meanwhile, Neumeister's choice of the popular Trinity Time hymn, "Ich ruf zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ" (I call to The, Lord Jesus Christ," filled the bill in 1725, closing the cantata "Wer sich rächet, an dem wird sich der Herr wieder rächen" (He who avenges, on him will the Lord again avenge).

Chorales for the 6th Sunday after Trinity (Douglas Cowing, Musical Context) and Bach's usage:

2) HYMN OF DAY (de tempore): "Es ist das Heil uns kommen her" (Salvation has come to us). Paul Speratus' 1524 text (14 verses) was set to the anonymous 1524 Wittenberg melody of the same title. Bach's usage of the hymn is found as Chorale Cantata BWV 9, c. 1734, repeat c.1740-47, for the 6th Sunday after Trinity (S. 1-12, paraphrases Stanzas 2-11) with the melody found in the opening chorale chorus and closing plain chorale (No. 5). Bach's other cantata usages are in
*Cantata BWV 155 closing chorale (No. 5, S.12; S. Franck text) for the 2nd Sunday After Epiphany, 1716, repeat 1724;
*Cantata BWV 186/6 closing chorales, Parts 1 and 2 (Nos. 6 and 11, Stanzas 10, 9; S. Franck text), for the 7th Sunday After Trinity, 1723, repeat 1746-50; and
*Cantata 86 (closing chorale No. 6, Stanza 9; ?C. Weiss Sr. text) for Easter +4 (Rogate), 1724.
The anonymous melody also is found in the Orgelbüchlein chorale prelude No. 77 (Confession, Penitence, Justification), BWV 638(a). It is a hymn of belief and faith, based on Roman's 3:28, Luther's doctrine, "Justification by faith alone," and originally was an Easter song, "Freu' dich du werthe Christenheit," which was in use in 1478.

"Es ist das Heil uns kommen her" is found in the 1682 <Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch> (NLGB), No. 230 in 12 stanzas; also for use at Epiphany +4, Septuageisma, and Trinity +13 and +18. It is found in the Lutheran Book of Worship, 1978; No. 297, "Justification," 5 stanzas, 7 lines 87.87.887, and the melody as LBW No. 194 for Baptism, set to the Danish bishop Thomas Hansen Kingo (1634-1703) text, "All who believe and are baptized" (2 stanzas).

Bach also used the 1524 melody set to the wedding hymn text (Stanza 1), "Sei lob und Her dem höchsten Gut" (Be praise and honor to the highest good) in wedding chorale BWV 251 (?1729), after the vows (Stiller 94) and the same Jakob Schütz nine-stanza 1675 text in the undesignated pure-hymn chorale Cantata BWV 117 (1729-35), with the Wittenberg melody in the opening chorale chorus and the plain chorales Nos./Stanzas) 4 and 9.

3) PULPIT HYMN:
"Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns wend" (Lord, Jesus Christ, be with us now) is one of four hymns sung in the Leipzig main service every Sunday (Stiller 117, 124) and vespers (p.258). Originally, it was a nominal Pentecost hymn, 1651, closing with the Trinity Time Lesser Doxology. The text is attributed to Wilhelm II, Saxe-Weimar (1598-1662) in 1676 (4 verses, 4 lines, 8.8.8.8.), anonymous melody Dresden 1628, in NLGB 817). There is no extant Bach setting of this chorale in a cantata. Instead, he uses the melody as a plain chorale BWV 332 (G Major, 8 bars; Teldec CD 25712/3), and this setting could have been appended to a repeat performance of Cantata BWV 170, which is in D Major. Bach also uses the melody as organ chorale preludes played as interludes before the pulpit sermon (P. Williams, <Organ Music of JSB>: 296f) in the <Orgelbüchlein> (OB49, Pentecost) chorale prelude, BWV 632, trio super BWV 655 (Great 18); and miscellaneous, BWV 709, 726, and 749. Here is the Catherine Winkworth translation (Chorale Book for England, 1865), also in the Lutheran Book of Worship, 1978; No. 253, "Beginning of Service":

Lord Jesus Christ, be present now!
And let thy Holy Spirit bow
All hearts in love and fear today,
To hear the truth and keep Thy way.

Open our lips to sing Thy praise,
Our hearts in true devotion raise,
Strengthen our faith, increase our light,
That we may know Thy name aright:

Until we join the host that cry
"Holy, Holy art Thou most High,"
And 'mid the light of that blest place
Shall gaze upon Thee face to face.

Glory to God, the Father, Son,
And Holy Spirit, Three in One!
To Thee, O blessed Trinity,
Be praise throughout eternity!


4) CHORALES for Pulpit and Communion Hymns:

A. "Mensch willtu leben" (Man, if you will live blessedly) (NLGB 493), Luther's second hymn on the 10 Commandments; also designated for the Fourth Sunday After Trinity; not set by Bach.

B. "Durch Adams Fall ist ganz verderbt Menschlich Natur und Wesen" (Through Adam's fall is completely corrupted of manly nature and character). Lazarus Spengler 1524 (9 stanzas, 8 lines), anonymous melody (Reformation battle sing 1525) in Klug's Sacred Songs, Wittenberg 1529. Catechism chorale (Penitential texts) the need for Saviour and for faith (Williams 303f); NLGB 606, "Christian Life and Belief." "Vindication/Justification)" "is very likely the category to which Bach understood this chorale text to belong" (http://www.bach-cantatas.com/CM/Durch-Adams-Fall.htm). Bach's cantata usage is
*BWV 18, text Neumeister III, No. 5 (closing chorale, S. 8), Sexageisma 1713/15, 1724, 1732-35; and
*BWV 109, No. 6 (closing chorale, S.7), Trinity +21, 1723.
Bach melody usage is found in three organ chorale prelude settings: Orgelbüchlein (OB 76; "Confession, Penitence, Justification)" BWV 637; Miscellaneous (Kirnberger), BWV 705; and Neumeister BWV 1101 (b1710).

C. "Dies sind die heilige zehn Gebot" (These are the 10 Holy Comandments), Catechism chorale, NLGB 490; designated for Trinity +4, +6, +13, +18.

D. "Ich ruf zu dir Herr Jesu Christ" (I call to Thee, Lord Jesus Christ), NLGB 627; designated for Trinity +2, +5, +6, +19, +21.

The incipits of these chorales as well as the titles of the cantatas Bach used or considered for the 6th Sunday after Trinity provide a short-hand or beginning to understanding the readings, teachings and themes of this Sunday: next time.

 

Cantata 9, Chorale Background, Trinity +6 Chorales

William Hoffman wrote (July 12, 2014):
With his seventh chorale cantata in the cycle, Cantata BWV 9, “Es ist das Heil uns kommen her” (Salvation has come to us), for the 6th Sunday after Trinity, begun in early Trinity Time 1724, Bach continued to utilize popular and mostly early Reformation chorales, usually in simple Bar form. With the exception of the later (1642) “O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort” for the 1st Sunday after Trinity, Bach chose hymns from his Neu Lepiziger Gesangbuch (NLGB) of 1682 with traditional themes appropriate for the early Sundays in Trinity Time. The latest of the chorales (1641), “O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort” also is not found in his first collection of organ chorale preludes, Orgelbuchlein, in Weimar, although the rest are listed but only the last three, OB 91, OB 113, and OB 77 for the 3rd, 4th, and 5th Sundays after Trinity are among the few settings during omnes tempore.

Bach, who had neglected omnes tempore topical and teaching chorales in his early, often de tempore Weimar cantatas and his first collection of organ chorale preludes, Orgelbuchlein, in Weimar, now had the opportunity at the beginning of his second cycle of setting two hundred years of chorales in the Lutheran liturgical tradition as part of his calling for a “well-ordered church music to the glory God,” set as musical sermons to introduce the Leipzig tradition of Trinity Time sermons exploring the chorale teachings.

Following the church year practice in Leipzig, Bach in 1724 observed the two popular mid-summer de tempore feast days of John the Baptist (June 24) with Cantata 7 “Christ, unser Herr, zum Jordan kam,” and the Purification of Mary (July 2) with Cantata 10, “Meine Seele erhebt den Herrn” [German Magnificat]. For the omnes rempore first six Sundays in Trinity Time, Bach adhered to chorales appropriate to these services but with little reference to the Gospel and Epistle readings, instead emphasizing teachings and theme of the church, particularly the early Trinity Time emphasis on Luther’s Catechism themes of “Justification & Penitence,” as well as Christian Life and Conduct, and Lutheran Psalm hymns. At the same time, Bach finally was able to utilize thematic omnes tempore chorales with their Lutheran teachings as sermonusing a more austere and cautionary pietistic personal, devotional emphases in pastors’ series of emblematic, symbolic, iconic teachings during the second half of the church year.

In the earliest Lutheran foundational chorales of the biblical word and liturgy, Bach chose the early Luther-Johann Walther collaborations of Psalm 12, “Ach Gott, vom Himmel sieh darein / Und lass' dich des erbarmen” (Ah God, look down from heaven / and still have mercy on us) and the Baptismal “Christ, unser Herr, zum Jordan kam” (Christ our Lord to the Jordan came). After using a variety of well-known Lutheran hymns, from the German Magnificat and the confessional “Ach Herr, mich armen Sünder” with its Passion melody to the affirmative “Wer nur den lieben Gott läßt walten,” Bach turned to the earliest of Luthern hymns, “Es ist das Heil uns kommen her>”

Here are the initial chorales in the second cycle used in early Trinity Time 1724, including their themes in the NLGB and listing in the Orgelbuchlein (OB), the chorale cantata (CC) use, and the text and melody writers and dates.

*Last Days, Resurrection of the Dead, Eternal Life (NLGB 394), Bar
No OB “O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort”; CC BWV 20 (Tr.+1, 6/11/1724), Joh. Rist 1642, mel. Joh. Schop 1642)
*Persecution & Tribulation NLGB 249], Bar
A. The Church Militant (Psalm Hymns)
OB 114. “Ach Gott, vom Himmel sieh darein” (Psalm 12); Luther 1524, ?mel.); CC BWV 2 (Tr.+2, 6/18/1724)
*Holy Baptism (June 24, NLGB 176), Bar
OB 66. “Christ, unser Herr, zum Jordan kam”; CC BWV 7 (John Baptist, 6/24/1724), Luther 1541, Walther 1524
*Penitence and Amendment (Confession, Penitence & Justification; NLGB 246), Bar
OB 73. “Ach Herr, mich armen Sünder,” CC 135 (Tr. +3, 6/25/1724), Cyriacus Schneegas 1597, Herzlich tut 1601
*Visitation (July 2, NLGB 153)
OB 56. Meine Seele erhebt den Herrn [Magnificat]; CC BWV 10 (Visitation, 7/2/1724); Jos. Klug GB 1535
*Christian Life and Conduct (Hope), NLGB 235, Bar
OB 91. BWV 639 — Ich ruf zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ’: CC BWV 177 (Tr.+4, ?1732); Agricola >1530, Klug
*In time of trouble (Christian Life& Conduct, Ob) (Cross, Persecution & Challenge, NLGB 303), Bar
OB 113. BWV 642 — “Wer nur den lieben Gott läßt walten”; CC BWV 93 (Tr.+5, 7/9/1724), G. Neumark 1640

*Penitence and Amendment (Justification, Confession, Penitence, NLGB 230), Bar
OB 77. BWV 638 — Es ist das Heil uns kommen her; CC BWV 9(Tr.6, ?1732), P. Speratus 1523, Wittenberg 1524.1

Earliest Eight Song Book

The Wittenberg circle of hymn writers, led by Luther, Walther, and Speratus, produced their earliest, essentially catechetical work together in 1523-24, says Robin A. Leaver in Luther’s Liturgical Music.2 Eight hymns were printed in a booklet as Etlich lider Lobgesang/und Psalm (Some Christian Songs, canticles, and Psalms), the so-called Achtliederbuch (Eight-Song-Book). Some, like Nun freut euch lieben Christen g’mein (Dear Christians, one and all rejoice) and Es ist das Heil uns kommen her (Salvation has come to us), by Paul Speratus), broadly summarized Scripture, while others were versifications of specific passages in scripture, such as Luther’s metrical psalms, Ach Gott vom Himmel sieh darein (Psalm 12, also known as a community lament), Es spricht der unweisen Mund wohl (The unknown mouth speaks well, Psalm 14); and Aus tiefer Not schrei' ich zu dir (From deep affliction I cry out to you, Psalm 130).

Speratus’ Es ist das Heil uns kommen her is described in the appendix of the booklet as “a song . . . of Law and Gospel” and is an exploration “of the doctrine of justification and the distinction between Law and Gospel, which later would be directly addressed in the first two parts of Luther’s catechisms: Commandments and Creed,” says Leaver (Ibid.). “These early Lutheran hymns were thus clearly and self-consciously the Word of God in song that would allow the people to learn and experience fundamental theology as they sang.”

Two other Speratus chorales about justification in the booklet are not well known: “In Gott gelaub ich” (“a song . . . to confess the faith”) and “Hilf Gott wie ist der Menschen Not (“a song . . . a song to pray for complete [spiritual] renewal”). Another, anonymous chorale about justification is “In Jesus Namen heben wir (“a Christian song of true faith and right lobe for God and neighbor” (Leaver translations).

The melodies of Ach Gott vom Himmel sieh darein and Es ist das Heil uns kommen her, because of their simple Bar form, became general melodies initially for other hymns texts. For example, Luther’s Aus tiefer Not schrei' ich zu dir originally was sung to Es ist das Heil but in 1524 in the Erfurt Enchirida was assigned another pre-existing tune, Ach Gott vom Himmel. The hymn Nun freut euch lieben Christen g’mein also continued to use the melody Es ist das Heil in the 1524 Erfurt Enchirida.

‘Es ist da Heil uns kommen her’ Details

Here are Charles S. Terry’s notes on Cantata BWV 9, “Es ist das Heil uns kommen her”:3 <<A Choral Cantata, on Paul Speratus’ Hymn, “Es ist das Heil uns kommen her,” founded on Romans iii. 28. It was published in the Etlich Christlich lider Lobgesang, und Psalm (Wittenberg, 1524) and repeated in the Erfurt Enchiridion of the same year. Speratus (Hoffer or Offer) was born in Suabia in 1484. He was among the earliest and most able supporters of Luther and visited Wittenberg in 1523 to help him in the preparation of the first Lutheran Hymn book, the “Achtliederbuch” to which he contributed three hymns. He drafted the Prussian Book of Church Order (1526), became Bishop of Pomerania in 1529, and died in 1551. The melody of Speratus’ Hymn, which Bach uses in the opening and closing movements of the Cantata, was published, along with the Hymn, in the “Achtliederbuch” of 1524. The tune originally was sung to the Easter Hymn, “Freu’ dich du werthe Christenheit,” which was in use in 1478. Bach uses the melody in Cantatas 86, 117, 155, 186, and in the “Drei Chorale zu Trauungen” (Choralgesange, No. 89). Organ Works, N. xv. 109. There is traditional usage (1535 and 1586) for Bach’s version of lines 5 and 6, and also for the C sharp in line 2.>>

The fifth quarter note in most of Bach’s settings of the first line of the melody, on the word “uns,” is a flatted seventh, giving the hymn its distinction. Bach sets the melody in E Major in Cantata 9, chorale fantasia (Mvt. 1) and again in the closing plain chorale (Mvt. 7, Stanza 12). Bach also sets the melody in E Major in the plain chorale closing Cantata 86/6 (Stanza 11). The other plain chorale settings are BWV 117/9 (G Major), 155/5 (F Major), 186/6 (F Major), and 251 (G Major).

For details of the “Musical Context of Bach Cantatas, Motets & Chorales for 6th Sunday after Trinity,” see BCW, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/LCY/M&C-Trinity6.htm . These include Douglas Cowling’s motet and chorale sources as well as the chorales Bach used in the cantatas presented on that Sunday, with a note that some cantatas did not have closing chorales, as well as information on the Hymn of the Day, the Pulpit Hymn the CHORALES for Pulpit and Communion Hymns, with some additional texts. The last category in cited with the corrected NLGB Hymn Numbers:

A. "Mensch willtu leben" (Man, if you will live blessedly) (NLGB 171, Catechism), Luther's second hymn on the 10 Commandments; also designated for the Fourth Sunday After Trinity; not set by Bach.
B. "Durch Adams Fall ist ganz verderbt Menschlich Natur und Wesen" (Through Adam's fall is completely corrupted of manly nature and character). Lazarus Spengler 1524 (9 stanzas, 8 lines), anonymous melody (Reformation battle sing 1525) in Klug's Sacred Songs, Wittenberg 1529. Catechism chorale (Penitential texts) the need for Saviour and for faith (Williams 303f); NLGB 229, "Christian Life and Belief." "Vindication/Justification)" "is very likely the category to which Bach understood this chorale text to belong" (http://www.bach-cantatas.com/CM/Durch-Adams-Fall.htm). Bach's cantata usage is:
*BWV 18, text Neumeister III, No. 5 (closing chorale, S. 8), Sexageisma 1713/15, 1724, 1732-35; and
*BWV 109, No. 6 (closing chorale, S.7), Trinity +21, 1723.
Bach melody usage is found in three organ chorale prelude settings: Orgelbüchlein (OB 76; "Confession, Penitence, Justification)" BWV 637; Miscellaneous (Kirnberger), BWV 705; and Neumeister BWV 1101 (b1710).
C. "Dies sind die heilige zehn Gebot" (These are the 10 Holy Comandments), Catechism chorale, NLGB 170; designated for Trinity +4, +6, +13, +18.
D. "Ich ruf zu dir Herr Jesu Christ" (I call to Thee, Lord Jesus Christ), NLGB 235, Christian Life & Conduct; designated for Trinity +2, +5, +6, +19, +21.

 

Musical Context of Bach Cantatas: Table of Motets & Chorales for Events in the Lutheran Church Year

Lutheran Church Year: Main Page and Explanation | LCY - Event Table | LCY 2000-2005 | LCY 2006-2010 | LCY 2011-2015
Sundays & Holidays in the Lifetime of J.S. Bach | Performance Dates of Bach’s Vocal Works
Readings from the Epistles and the Gospels for each Event | Motets & Chorales for Events in the LCY
Discussions: Events in the Lutheran Church Year: Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 | Part 5 | Part 6 | Readings from the Bible

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Last update: ýNovember 9, 2014 ý11:42:24