Cantata BWV 75Die Elenden sollen essen, daß sie satt werden
Discussions - Part 3
Continue from Part 2
Discussions in the Week of April 17, 2011 (3rd round)
Ed Myskowski wrote (April 17, 2011):
Introduction to BWV 75-- Die Elenden sollen essen
Last weeks discussion concluded the series of cantatas spanning from Easter to Trinity. With BWV 75 , we move on in the liturgical year to begin works for the long series of Sundays after Trinity, which will be the main focus of our weekly discussions for nearly two years, through 2012.
Details of text, commentary, recordings, and previous discussion are accessible via: http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV75.htm
The link to commentary by Julian [Mincham] is especially recommended as an introduction to listening.
The BWV 75 page also has convenient access to Gardiners notes to the pilgrimage CDs , by clicking on the PDF link under the picture of the CD cover. Volume 1, including this weeks BWV 75, will be appropriate for the next two weeks, as well, with the additional works for Trinity 1 (1st Sunday after Trinity).
BWV 75 was Bachs formal debut in Leipzig, the opening of what became his two major cantata cycles (Jahrgang I and II), which he perhaps had in mind, at least in structural outline, from the outset. It requires a bit of concentration to adapt to the fact that we have listened to the concluding works of those cycles in recent weeks, and that we are only now preparing for the beginning of the composition cycles. The composition and the church calendar are out of phase because Bach began his Leipzig post in the middle of the liturgical year.
Gardiner  followed and accentuated this out-of-phase relation, performing the works during the pilgrimage in church calendar sequence, but numbering the CD releases beginning in the middle with Vol. 1, including Trinity 1, and then releasing them seemingly at random, over a span of nearly ten years. Well, the 27 volumes are now all in hand, and we can forge ahead from Vol. 1. Except, beware that Feast of St. John the Baptist waiting to ensnare you back into confusion. .
Our recent discussions have been helpful in clarifying the structure of the church calendar. I also find this site informative (link repeated from last week): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liturgical_calendar_(Lutheran)
especially the circular graph (pie chart) which shows the seasons of the church year: The different character of two parts (approximately halves) of the year is apparent, if not exactly a formal division bounded by Advent and Trinity.
Trinity season, we are underway.
Ed Myskowski wrote (April 17, 2011):
Ed Myskowski wrote:
< BWV 75 was Bachs formal debut in Leipzig, the opening of what became his two major cantata >cycles (Jahrgang I and II) >
I also intended to emphasize that BWV 75 is a two part (bipartite) work, including Sinfonia opening to Part II. See associated discussion on that topic, especially Doug Cowlings closing comment that one to one and a half hours could elapse between the two parts.
Julian Mincham wrote (April 17, 2011):
[To Ed Myskowski] For the first six weeks at Leipzig Bach produced two-part cantatas BWV 75, BWV 76, BWV 21, BWV 24/BWV 185 (the first linking of two shorter works to create, in effect, a two part cantata) BWV 147 and BWV 186. !67 was only in one part but that was for the special feat day of John the Baptist.
Thereafter he presented 18 one-part cantatas in a row changing the pattern only when he reached BWV 70. There are no two-part works in the second cycle but a clutch of them occurs again in the third after he had prested well over a hundred cantatas in Leipzig..
The assumption may be that he intended to present two-part works of his own creation as standard at Leipzig but found the demands (on him? on the musicians?) to be too great; there is a general assumption amongst scholars dealing with the cantatas that Bach over estimated what could be achieved in his first weeks in Leipzig and, being the practical man that he was, adapted accordingly. This sits nicely with the fact that his 'grand plan' of chorale/fantasia cantatas completely rejected the two-part structure..
Bruce Simonson wrote (April 22, 2011):
Back OT: Intro to BWV 75: Die Elenden sollen essen, and here comes Trinity+
By the way, I want to commend Ed on his fine work on keeping the flow of cantata discussions on track. I especially appreciated his introduction to BWV 75, a work the significance of which I did not fully appreciate, until he pointed out its chronology at the beginning of Bach's Leipzig years.
Here's an excerpt from Ed's introduction:
Ed Myskowski wrote:
< Introduction to BWV 75-- Die Elenden sollen essen
Last week's discussion concluded the series of cantatas spanning from Easter to Trinity. With BWV 75, we move on in the liturgical year to begin works for the long series of Sundays after Trinity, which will be the main focus of our weekly discussions for nearly two years, through 2012.
Details of text, commentary, recordings, and previous discussion are accessible via: http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV75.htm
The link to commentary by Julian [Mincham] is especially recommended as an introduction to listening.
BWV 75 was Bach's formal debut in Leipzig, the opening of what became his two major cantata cycles (Jahrgang I and II), which he perhaps had in mind, at least in structural outline, from the outset. It requires a bit of concentration to adapt to the fact that we have listened to the concluding works of those cycles in recent weeks, and that we are only now preparing for the beginning of the composition cycles. The composition and the church calendar are out of phase because Bach began his Leipzig post in the middle of the liturgical year. >
Very aptly observed. And I agree with Ed, Julian's essay on this cantata is very good.
For me, it's perhaps too easy to speculate on Bach's entry into Leipzig, full of ideals as a new Kantor, with his specific perspective on the role of music in the church service.
But one thing seems obvious, the preacher in Leipzig in May, June, and July of 1723 must have been impressed, if not totally overwhelmed by Bach's talent and theological acumen. Bach got off to a powerful start, and that's no foolin'.
BWV 75, 76, 147, and 186 within a six week period. Perhaps Bach had portions of these already started before Leipzig, but Leipzig didn't have them! Imagine, learning these works in 6 weeks?
And that's just the beginning. Leading to Bach's Liturgical Anno Mirabilis of 1726.
Oh, those lucky Leipzigians.
Ed Myskowski wrote (May 1, 2011):
Two weeks ago, I wrote this message with respect to BWV 75, but I inadvertently sent it only to myself, rather than to BCML. I think it worth adding, even if a bit late, and I will provide a few thoughts of contrast, with BWV 39.
>Introduction to BWV 75-- Die Elenden sollen essen
The following translation is from the booklet notes to the Emmanuel Music CD , the concluding phrase of the Epistle for Trinity 1 (Paul’s first letter to John, Chapter 4, Verses 16-21):
<Anyone who says, <I love God>, and hates his brother, is a liar, since a man who does not love the brother that he can see cannot love God, whom he has never seen. So this is the commandment that he has given us, that anyone who loves God must also love his brother.> (end quote)
I do not see this philosophy expressed in the libretto for BWV 75. In fact, I do not see that it is very central to Lutheran theology in general, although I am open to be shown otherwise.
I like to think that I feel it in the music of Bach.
Cantata 75: Trinity Time Chorales
William Hoffman wrote (June 9, 2011):
Bach's main service cantatas during Trinity Time are musical sermons utilizing the important biblical teachings as found in the great variety of Lutheran chorales. Bach's fidelity to established hymns, especially those with well-known melodies and texts, is particularly evident in those hymns based on <omne tempore> Gospel and Psalm readings, as found in the Vopelius, <Das Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch> (NLGB) of 1682. These are found throughout the hymnbook for general usage, communion, weddings, and specific Christian themes as realized in Bach's Leipzig cantata cycles 1723-29, as well as in early organ chorale prelude instrumental settings and in later harmonized chorale settings.
The <omne tempore> common time of Epiphany and Trinity, focusing on the teachings of the Christian Church, emphasizes both general Christian themes, such as "Christian Life and Conduct" and "Trusting in God, Cross and Consolation," as well as New Testament teachings as shown in Doug Cowling's BCW THEMATIC PATTERNS IN BACH¹S GOSPELS: parables, miracles and other teachings: http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Topics/Readings.htm,
scroll down to: Thematic Patterns in Bach's Gospels/Douglas Cowling wrote (May 3, 2011)
The First Sunday After Trinity Sunday, occurring before the mid-summer equinox in June, marked the beginning of the Trinity time half-year of church services, the beginning of Bach's first two cantata cycles, and the beginning of the Thomas School scholastic term. Thus, it was most fitting for Bach to establish a strong framework for his well-regulated church music with the use of appropriate and engaging chorales for his musical sermons.
Consequently, Bach produced music of great depth and breadth:
*His initial cantatas for the first seven Sundays After Trinity show great ambition, being in two parts or dual performances for full ensemble, with proclaiming choruses, instrumental introductions, and instructive and elaborate chorale settings with more familiar melodies found throughout Trinity time.
*The prescribed biblical readings and hymn music are revealed throughout the texts of the first or <alpha> cyclic cantatas with preparatory organ chorale preludes and free-standing, harmonized, four-part chorales.
*Thematic biblical teaching patterns are complemented with systematic and intentional use of familiar <omne tempore chorales> as Bach traverses the first four Sundays After Trinity with chorale cantatas in his second cycle drawn from the initial Trinity time designation in the hymn books. In addition, Bach at least once thereafter began a cantata cycle on the First Sunday After Trinity. "Bach apparently performed the entire annual cantata cycle `Das Saitenspiel des Herzens' by Stözel in 1735-36," says Christoph Wolff in the essay "Under the Spell of Opera? Bach's Oratorio trilogy" in <Bach Perspectives 8: J.S. Bach and the Oratorio Tradition>, ed. Daniel Melamed (Univ. of Illinois Press, 2011: 3), citing the recent St. Petersburg text booklet findings of Tatiana Schabalina in the <Bach Jahrbuch> 2008-10. Thus none of the chorale cantatas could have been repeated in the 1735 Trinity Time but could have been repeated in the 1732 Trinity Time.
Bach's texts and hymns for the First Sunday After Trinity, cast in the first four two-part Cantatas 75, 20, 39, and 21 reveal an emphasis on Old Testament teachings as the foundation for the Christian Church with celebration and signing to the Lord, then the central message of Love as the Great Commandment in Christian teachings, and finally, the affirmation of the doctrinal Triune Church and Time through God the Creator, Jesus Christ the Redeemer, and the abundant and free grace of the Holy Spirit as Sanctifier.
1. Cantata BWV 75 <Die Elenden sollen essen, daß sie satt werden> (The poor shall eat as much as they want, Psalm 22:26); chorales No. 7 & 11, "Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan" (What God does, that is well-done);
2. Chorale Cantata BWV 20, <O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort> (O eternity, thou word of thunder);
3. Cantata BWV 39 <Brich dem Hungrigen dein Brot> (Break your bread with the hungry; Isaiah 58:7-8); chorale, No. 7, D. Deicke "Kommt, laßt euch den Herren lehren" (Come let the Lord teach you); S.7: "Selig sind, die aus Erbarmen/Sich annehmen fremder Not," (Blessed are those who from pity/take to themselves the needs of others) based on the Beatitudes.
4. [Picander Text only: P42 <Welt, der Purpur stinkt mich an> (World, thy purple robe stinks on me); chorale, No. 5, "Warum sollt ich mich denn grämen? (Why should I myself then grieve?); S. 6, "Was sind dieses Lebens Güter?" [What are these life's goods]).
Here is an in-depth look at the chorales Bach uses in his Cantatas for the First Sunday After Trinity, including four-part chorales with elaborate interludes closing both parts of his first two Leipzig Cantatas 75 and 20, each totaling 14 movements. In addition, Bach uses the chorale "Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan" in two Chorale Cantatas (BWV 99 and 100) as well as in four other Cantatas (BWV 98, 144, 12, and 69a) and as a wedding setting and an organ chorale prelude.
Cycle 1 (1723)
05/30/23 Trinity +1 BWV 75/7, 8 & 14. Samuel Rodigast's c.1675 hymn, "Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan" is the title of three Bach Cantatas BWV 98I, 99II, and 100III. Each of the six stanzas begins with the dictum, "Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan" (What God does, that is done well). Part 1 of Cantata 75 closes with the elaborated plain chorale with interludes, Movement No. 7 (Stanza 5): " . . . / Muß ich den Kelch gleich schmecken . . . Laß ich mich doch nicht schrecken" ( . . . / If I have to taste the chalice (New Covenant) . . . I shall not let myself be frightened). Part 2 begins with an orchestral sinfonia (No. 8) that sounds the chorale melody in the high solo trumpet. This version, transcribed for cello, opens the Yo-Yo Ma Sony CD 60681, "Simply Baroque II: Bach and Boccherini," with Ton Koopman and the Amsterdam Baroque Orchestra.
Cantata BWV 75 Part 2 closes with No. 14 (S.6): "Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan, / Dabei will ich verbleiben" (What God does, that is done well, / I shall keep to this thought). The closing plain chorales of both parts are the same setting with different texts. Stanza 6 also is found in closing four-part chorales in Cantata BWV 12/7 for Easter +3 and the same setting in Cantata 69a/6 (Trinity +12), Cantata 99/6 (Trinity +15), and Cantata 100/6.
The settings of BWV 76/7=14 and 99/6 are found in the current choir book, <Bach for all Seasons>, Chantry Music (Augsburg Fortress Press) 1999, for "General" and "Funeral (Cross & Comfort)." The biblical source cited is Romans 8:28-30, "The Future Glory" (King James version): 28 And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to his purpose. 29 For whom he did foreknow, he also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brethren. 30 Moreover whom he did predestinate, them he also called: and whom he called, them he also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified.
The American Lutheran hymnals cite the chorale as "Trust, Guidance," based on Deuteronomy 32:4: "He is the Rock, his work is perfect: for all his ways are judgment: a God of truth and without iniquity, just and right is he." (Hymnal Cto the Lutheran Book of Worship, Marilyn Kay Stulken, Fortress Press 1981: 474).
The associated melody also is used with Stanza 1 as chorale fantasias to open Trinity Time Cantatas 98I/1 for Trinity +21, Cantata 99II/1 for Trinity +15, and 100III/1, undesignated, as well as Cantata BWV 144/3 for Septuagesima Sunday (<omne tempore>) and chorale BWV 250 (wedding opening). Two chorale cantata settings are extant: BWV 99 with stanzas 2-5 paraphrased), and BWV 100 (pure-hymn cantata, no service designation; suggested for Trinity +15 or +21. The opening elaborate chorale chorus of Cantata 99 also is used to open Cantata 100.
According to the 1687 Nordhäuser Hymnal (BCW) Rodigast wrote this hymn to cheer his friend, Severus Gastorius, precentor at Jena, who had become seriously ill. Gastorius not only recovered, but went on to write the tune for Rodigast's words, based on an earlier tune by Fabricius. Composers Johann Pachelbel, Johann Gottfried Walter and Telemann used the hymn, as well as Bach students Kellner, J. L. Krebs, Homilius, Doles, and Kirnberger, primarily as chorale preludes. The six verses speak to affirmation, confidence, good health, fidelity, comfort, and assurance.
Other melodic references are found in the early chorale prelude collections, the Orgelbüchlein No. 112, "Christian Life and Conduct" (not set), and Neumeister chorale prelude (No. 69), BWV 1116. The chorale is not found in the 1682 <Das Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch> (NLGB) but is first found in the 1690 Nürnberg Gesangbuch. The chorale is listed as a Communion hymn for Trinity +12 in the Leipzig and Dresden hymn schedules; for Trinity +21, Cantatas 98 and 100 are appropriate, according to Stiller (see Bibliography)
Cycle 2 (1724)
06/11/24 Trinity +1 BWV 20, Johann Rist's 1642 chorale text, <O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort>, is found in the 1682 Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch as No. 1006 (shortened version, 12 of 16 stanzas printed; omitting the original Stanzas 4, 7, 8, 12). The associated chorale melodies are "Wach auf, mein Geist, erhebe dich" (1642 early version) and "O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort" (1653 later. modified version set to Rist text), attributed, respectively, to composers Johann Schop and Johann Crüger. It is not cited in Stiller.
In Cantata BWV 20, there are three chorale uses in F Major: No. 1 chorale fantasia (S.1); No. 7 (S.11) "Solang ein Gott im Himmel lebt" (As long as God lives in heaven); and No. 11 (S.16) "O Schwert, das durch die Seele bohrt (O sword that pierces through the soul). The closing plain chorales of both parts are the same setting with different texts. The hymn also begins Cantata BWV 60 (Trinity +24, troped chorale with aria); is found in plain chorale BWV 397 in F Major (S. 13 , "Wach auf, o Mensch, vom Sündenschlaf" (Wake up, O Man, from the sleep of sin), which probably was used in the <St. Mark Passion>, BWV 247/30, where the apostles sleep in the Garden of Gethsemane; and as BWV 513, Anna Magdalena 1725 Notebook No. 42 (last item, p. 121) in F Major for soprano and basso continuo in Anna Magdalena's early handwriting.
Pre-Cycle 3 (1725)
06/05/25 Trinity +1 ?? repeat BWV 75a, No. 2, bass recitative: "Was hilft des Purpurs Majestät/ Da sie vergeht?" (What use are royal robes [lit.purple]/since they pass away?); No. 6, "Was Gott tut" (Rodigast, S.5); see Cycle 1 above, BWV 75/7. It is the only documented "repeat" performance of a cantata for the First Sunday After Trinity.
Cycle 3 (1726)
06/23/26 Trinity +1 BWV 39 /7. David Deicke's 1648 11-stanza hymn "Kommt, laßt euch den Herren lehren" (Come let the Lord teach you) is based loosely on the Beatitudes (Matthew, Chapters 5-7, Sermon on the Mount). Stanza 6 closes Cantata 39: "Selig sind, die aus Erbarmen/ Sich annehmen fremder Not" (Blessed are those who from pity / take to themselves the needs of others). The plain chorale is set to the popular melody, "Freu' dich sehr, o meine Seele" (Rejoice greatly, o my soul) originally anonymous, by Louis Bourgeois in 1551 and is a commentary to Psalm 42, found in NLGB 918. The BCW lists various alternative texts set to the melody and alternate Deicke Text 4 of 1648 is not found in the Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch (NLGB). Bach's melody use to the various alternate texts is found in seven <omne tempore> cantatas: original Deicke Text 1, BWV 19/7 (S. 9, St. Michael) and 70/7 (S. 10, Trinity +26); J. Heerman Text 2, "Zion klagt mit Angst und Schmerzen", BWV 13/3 (S.2, Epiphany +2); J. Heermann Text 3, "Treuer Gott, ich muß dir klagen," BWV 25/6 (S. 12, Trinity +14), BWV 194/6 (S. 6 & 7, Trinity Sunday); J. Olearius Text 5, "Tröstet, tröstet meine Lieben," BWV 30/6 (S. 3, St. John Feast); P. Gerhardt Text 6, "Weg, mein Herz, mit den Gedanken," BWV 32/6 (S. 12, Epiphany +1).
Use of Alternate Melody (Zahn 1294) by Bach: BWV 1119 (Neumeister organ chorale prelude), "Wie ach ein Wasserquelle" (Orgelbüchlein No. 121, "The Word of God and the Christian Church," not set), and BWV 743 (miscellaneous organ chorale prelude, questionable authenticity). J.S. Bach use (doubtful): "Freu dich sehr, o meine Seele," Chorale Prelude for Organ, BWV Anh. 52 and Anh. 53 (recording: Stephen Rapp, "21 Newly Published Organ Chorales attributed to J. S. Bach," Raven CD OAR-420, 1998). Primary Source: www.bach-cantatas.com/CM/Freu-dich-sehr.htm
Cycle 4 (1729)
06/19/29 Trinity +1 P42 Welt, der Purpur stinkt mich an (World, thy purple robe stinks on me); No. 5, closing chorale, "Warum sollt ich mich denn grämen?" (Why should I myself then grieve?); Why should I myself then grieve?); Text, Paul Gerhardt, 1653.
S.10 of 12 stanzas, "Was sind dieses Lebens Güter?" [What are these life's goods]); associated melody adapted from D. Vetterer 1713, from J. G. Ebeling 1666). Also may be harmonized as S.6, closing chorale, in Pcander cycle, P-63/5, "Gott, du Richter, der Gedanken" (Trinity +19).
Bach's uses: Motet BWV 228 (S. 11 & 12 in soprano "du mist mein, ich bin dein" [your are mine, I am yours] in A Major), ?1726. BWV 422, four-part chorale in C/G Major, ? after 1730; listed as hymn of "Trusting in God, Cross, and Consolation (Hänssler complete Bach edition (No. 85), A Book of Chorale settings, No. 8, CD 92.085 (1999).
Same melody set to P. Gerhardt text, "Frölich soll mein Herze springen diese Zeit" (Joyfully shall my heart sopring up this time, 1656), as four-part chorale in Christmas Oratorio (Part 3, Adoration of the Shepherds), "Ich will dich mit Fleiß bewahren" (I will firmly cherish three), BWV 248/33 (248III/10), "Und die Hirten kehrten wieder um" (And the shepherds went back again), 1734.
"(W)e know concerning Leipzig, that the hymns of Paul Gerhardt did not achieve general significance until Bach's time, that is at the beginning of the thirties of the 18th century" (Stiller: 235). Only two Gerhardt service settings, pp. 71f and 104, are found in the Vopelius <Das Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch>.
Music for the First Sunday After Trinity [with further commentary. Bach sets all of the service chorales as well as many NLGB hymns, including those as chorale cantatas (church year cycle 2) for the first four Sundays After Trinity: +1, BWV 20, "O Ewigkeit, du Donnerword" (see above); +2, BWV 2, "Ach Gott vom Himmel sieh darein" (Chorales for Pulpip & Communion Hymns); +3, BWV 135, "Ach Herr, mich armen Sünder" (NLGB); and +4, "Ich ruf zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ" (NLGB).
Motets and Chorales for the First Sunday After Trinity
Douglas Cowling wrote (April 17, 2011):
THE MUSICAL CONTEXT OF BACH'S CANTATAS:
MOTETS AND CHORALES FOR THE FIRST SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY
* BACH'S HYMN BOOK:
Jürgen Grimm, "Das neu [?] Leipziger Gesangbuch des Gottfried Vopelius (Leipzig 1682)",
Berlin: Merseburger, 1969.
ML 3168 G75
* BACH'S MOTET COLLECTION:
Otto Riemer, "Erhard Bodenschatz und sein Florilegium Portense"
ML 410 B67R4
* The introit was taken from the pre-Reformation feast of Corpus Christi which was celebrated on the Thursday after TSunday but abolished by Luther. The music was retained for that week.
* The Bodenschatz collection provides 1-4 motets for each Sunday After Trinity, although there are a fair number for which there is no provision. Discussion as we reach them.
* "Herr Jesu Christ" appears to have been the pulpit hymn for all of the two dozen Sundays after Trinity.
1) MOTETS for Introit, Before Sermon at mass and vespers for Choir II, and During Communion:
"Homo Quidam" (Gregorian chant responsory) (6 Voices) Melchoir Vulpius (1560-1615)
"A certain man organized a great dinner and sent his servant at the hour of dinner so that he said to his guests to come: Because everything is prepared. Come to eat my bread and to drink my wine that I prepared for you."
2) HYMN OF DAY (de tempore)
"Es spricht der Unweisen Mund wohl" (The unknown mouth speaks well) (Luther) (NLGB 662); Set by Bach as BWV 308 (4-part chorale, Bb Major); melody, Johann Walter; text, after Psalm 14 (Human Wickedness), Martin Luther. www.bach-cantatas.com/INS/BWV308-00.htm. Listed as an <omne tempore> Psalm hymn (Hänssler complete Bach edition (No. 82), A Book of Chorale settings, No. 5, CD 92.082 (1999).
Chorale Prelude, "Es spricht der Unweisen Mund wohl" (Rudorff Collection), BWV deest
^Kevin Bowyer, JSB Complete Organ Works, Vol. 14, Vol. 14: The Rudorff Chorales; Nimbus CD
^ Franz Haselböck, Organ Chorale From the Rinck and Rudorff Collections; Musical Heritage Society (Hänssler) CD 85295, 2006
3) PULPIT HYMN:
"Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns wend" (Lord Jesus Christ, be present now):
It is found in the NLGB 817, "Word of God and Christian Church"); text Duke Wilhelm II Saxe-Weimar (?) 1651; melody 1628, (3 verses & Doxology, NLGB 817). It is a Pentecost Festival hymn, one of four sung in every ordinary Sunday main service (<Leipziger Kirchen-Staat, Stiller: 117) and Sunday vespers opening hymn (Stiller 258); prayer and organ chorale interlude before the sermon (Williams: 297). Bach's uses are: a 4-part chorale BWV 332 (G Major, 8 bars); the organ chorale preludes: BWV 632 (Orgelbüchlein No. 49, Pentecost), BWV 659 (Great 18); and miscaellaneous preludes, BWV 709, 726, and 749.
4) CHORALES for Pulpit and Communion Hymns (found in <Das Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch>, NLGB):
1. Weltliche Ehr und zeitliche Gut" (World honors and transient goods) is found in the (NLGB 642), text M. Weise 1531 (10 stanzas), melody M. Vulpius, Vögelin GB 1563; Bach's 4-part chorale setting, BWV 426 (C Major).
2. "Es war einmal ein reicher Mann" (There once was a rich man). (NLGB 630); "Schein, Cantional oder Gesangbuch Augspurgischer Confession (4, 5 ou 6 voix), Verlag des Autors; Leipzig 1627. Dédicacé au maire et au Conseil de Leipzig. Augmenté en 1645 : « mit 27 schönen Gsgn. vermehr », J. Schuste, Leipzig 1645": "Es war einmal ein reicher Mann, SATB" [lyrics based on introit (Gospel) text]: no Bach setting extant.
3. "Ach Gott vom Himmel sieh darein" (Ah God, look down from heaven) (NLGB 660); text, Luther, Psalm 12 (Prayer for Help) (6 stanzas); melody, anonymous c.1410. [used in Chorale Cantata BWV 2/1,6 for Trinity 2]
http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale026-Eng3.htm . Same associated melody with text, "Schau, lieber Gott, wie mein Feind (BWV 153/1, S.1, Sunday after New Year); with text "Wenn einer alle Ding verstünd (BWV 77/6, S.8, Trinity +13).
4. "Kommt her zu mir, spricht Gottes Sonn" (Come here to me, said God's Son) (NLGB 622). Hymn, G. Grünwald 1530 to folksong c.1490; text Easter/Pentecost: (Mat. 11:28; 16 stanzas);
Bach usages: JLB 8/8 (S.14-16) E3; 86/3 (S.16) E5; mel. in 108/6, "Gott Vater, senden deine Geist" (S.10) E4; mel. in 74/8, "Gott Vater, sende deinen Geist" (S.2) Pentecost.
"Versage nicht, O Häuflein" (O Little Flock, Fear Not the Foe, NLGB 823), <Stiller> 240, Dresden E3; BWV 42/4(S.1) E1, is Stanza 1 of the ?Fabricus text that may be a marching song of King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. The melody is derived from "Kommt her zu mir, spricht Gottes Sohn" (Dürr <JSB Cantatas> 297, Whittaker <JSB Cantatas> I:298 ref. Terry Bach's Chorales). Grunwald's text, "Kommt her zu mir," is based on Mat. 11:28, Jesus preaching. Thus the Fabricus texts and Grunwald tune have the related themes of comfort and peace.
Lutheran Book of Worship (1978, Inter-Lutheran Commission on Worship), Hymn No. 361, "Do Not Despair, O Little Flock" (Community in Christ); text, Johann M. Altenberg, 1584-1630 (four stanzas); tune, "Kommt her zu mir," Nuernberg, 1534. I can't find the C.S. Terry reference, cited in Whittaker I:298: htttp//www.oll.libertyfund.org/index.php?option=com. Previous two and succeeding Lutheran hymnals do not have this hymn.
Other hymns also related to Trinity +1 readings, found in NLGB
1. "Ach Herr mein Gott, straft mich doch nicht" (NLGB 648); not set by Bach
2. "Ach Herr, mich armen Sünder" (Ah Lord, poor sinner that I am), (NLGB 655); text (6 stanzas), Cyriakus Schneegaß (1597), based on Psalm 6; melody, H. Hassler "Befiehl du deine Wege" (Herzlich tut mich verlangen, Passion chorale) 1601; Bach usage: chorale Cantata BWV 135 (Trinity +3). Bach did not set the hymn as Orgelbüchlein Catechism chorale prelude No. 73, "Confession, Penitenance, and Justification" but did set the melody in the possibly very young Bach miscellanous organ chorale prelude BWV 742.
3. "Herr nicht schicke deine Rache" (652), not set by Bach
4. "Herr, straf' mich nicht in deinem Zorn" (O Lord, do not punish me in your anger) /Das bitt ich dich von Herzen," (NLGB 648); text, J. Crüger 1640 (6 stanzas; based on Psalm 6); melody unknown ?1640; Bach uasage: BWV 338 (A-Minor/Major); Listed as Psalm hymn (Hänssler complete Bach edition (No. 82), A Book of Chorale settings, No. 5, CD 92.082 (1999).
4a. "Straf mich nicht in deinem Zorn/großer Gott, verschone." (Do not rebuke me in your anger, Ps. 6:1) Text 1, J. G. Albinus (7 stanzas, 1676; based on Psalm 6), melody anonymous 1681; not set by Bach
4b. Listed in NLGB 648 as "Ach Herr mein Gott, straf mich doch nicht" and as "Herr, straf' mich nicht in deinem Zorn."
4c. Text 2: "Mache dich, mein Geist, bereit," J. B. Freystein (1695); Bach usage in chorale Cantata BWV 115/1(S.1),6(S.10( (Trinity +22).
Other composers who have set "Herr, straf' mich nicht in deinem Zorn" include: Scguetz, Telemann and Knüpfer.
5. "Ich ruf zu dir Herr Jesus Christ" (I call to you, Lord Jesus Christ) (NLGB 627); text, J. Agricola by 1530 (5 stanzas), melody, J. Klug GB 1535; Bach's usages: Chorale Cantata BWV 1771/5 (Trinity +4); Cantata 185/6 (S.1) and 185/1 (melody in trumpet & oboe) (Trinity +4). Plain chorale BWV 1124, "Christian Life and Expectation" (Hänssler complete Bach edition (No. 83), A Book of Chorale settings, No. 6, CD 92.083, 1999).
Stiller: ChThis hymn "is specifically assigned to this Sunday in the Leipzig and Dresden hymnals" (P. 242) and in Leipzig for the <omne tempore> Third Sunday After Epiphany (p. 238).
6. "Mit dank wir sollen loben" (NLGB 659), not set by Bach
7. "In allen meinen Taten" (In all my deeds) (NLGB 640), text Paul Flemming 1642 (9 stanzas); Bach set the text to the familiar Passion melody "O Welt, ich muß dich lassen" (O world, I must leave thee), based on H. Isaac 1490 melody, "Innsbruck, ich muß dich lassen." Bach works: Cantata BWV 13/6 (Trinity +3), BWV 44/7 (Easter +6), the pure-hymn Chorale Cantata BWV 97, not assigned to a specific service. The associated melody of Johann Quirsfeld 1679 is found in the NLGB and was used as the opening hymn to church weddings, plain chorale BWV 367 in C Major ("Trust in God, Cross and Consolation," Hänssler complete Bach edition (No. 85), A Book of Chorale settings, No. 8, CD 92.085 (1999).
8. "Nun danket alle Gott" (Now thank wall oun God) (NLGB 648). Hymn after sermon; text, Marin Rinckart 1636 (3 verses); melody, J. Crüger 1647. Stiller: hymn with main service festival <Te Deum> (p. 81f), after wedding service benediction (BWV 252 in G Major (S.1), p. 94, Hänssler V.83, "Praise & Thanks"), New Year's Day (chorale Cantata BWV 192 in G Major), and Reformation Festival (Cantata BWV 79/3 (S.1) plain chorale in G Major). Other Bach uses: BWV 386 in G Major, same as BWV Anh. 164/2 (S.3, transposed to A Major), (Hänssler V.83, "Praise & Thanks"); and organ chorale prelude BWV 657 (Great 18).
BCW (Paul Gerhardt, Bach uses 22 hymns): www.bach-cantatas.com/Lib/Gerhardt.htm
Häfner, Klaus. "Der Picander Jahrgang," <Bach Jahrbuch> 61 (1975): 107.
Stiller, Gunther. <JSB & Liturgical Life in Leipzig>, Concordia, 1984.
Stinson, Russell. <Bach: The Orgelüchlein>, Oxford University Press, 1999.
Williams, Peter. <The Organ Music of JSB> (Second Edition), Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Wolff, Christoph. "The Neumeister Collection of Chorale Preludes from the Bach Circle," in <Bach: Essays on
His Life and Music>, Harvard University Press, 1991.
Vopelius, Gottfried, <Das Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch> (1682); glossary, Jürgen Grimm, Berlin: Merseburger, 1969. ML 3168 G75
Continue on Part 4
Cantata BWV 75: Details & Complete Recordings | Recordings of Individual Movements
Discussions: Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4