William Hoffman wrote (June 22, 2011):
Bach's observance of the Third and Fourth Sundays after Trinity in Leipzig shows his continued consistency in the creation of Trinity Time service cantatas and appropriate plain and organ chorale settings. Responding to similar pairings of themes for these two Sundays with the overall concept of Trust in God through humility and mercy, the didactic chorales build on the principals in the first two Sundays after Trinity, emphasizing God's love and grace for all. Key Trinity Time chorales are used interchangeably, while Bach begins introducing positive, familiar Psalm and Communion Hymns.
Bach uses four well-known trinity Time chorales in the five surviving cantatas for the Third and Fourth Sundays after Trinity: Neumark's "Wer nur den lieben Gott läßt walten" (BWV 21/9), Agricola's "Ich ruf zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ" (BWV 185/6 and Chorale Cantata BWV 177), Heermann's "O Gott, du frommer Gott" (BWV 24/6), and "Ach Herr, mich armen Sünder" with the Passion chorale melody (Chorale Cantata BWV 135)
Bach's cantatas continually adhere to the Gospel teachings as emphasized in the sermons. For the Third Sunday after Trinity, Bach's two extant cantatas, BWV 21 and BWV 135, reflect the Epistle, 1 Peter 5: 6-11 (God's humble flock), especially in verse 7: "Cast all your cares upon Him, for he cares for you," especially Cantata BWV 21 with a direct quotation. The Gospel (Luke 15:1-10 touches on the Good Shepherd theme first found in Second Sunday after Easter (Misericordias Domini) and the Lost Sheep in the Third Day of Pentecost (Whit Tuesday), emphasizing the treasure found in the Parable of the lost sheep and the lost coin.
Bach's three extant cantatas for the Fourth Sunday after Trinity, BWV 185, BWV 24 and the belated BWV 177, observe the spirit of the day's Epistle, Romans 8: 18-23 (Hope in Future Glory ), especially verse 9. "All of creation awaits with eager longing for God to reveal his children," and the Gospel (Luke 6: 36-42), be merciful (compassionate), do not judge, as shown in the parable of the Blind leading the Blind
Bach also uses three popular early Trinity Time Psalm Chorales found in the NLGB: Psalm 23, both setting of "Der Herr ist mein getreuer Hirt" (The Lord is my Faithful Shepherd); Psalm 46, Luther's "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott" (A Mighty Fortress is our God); and Psalm 103, Cyriakus Schneegaß' "Nun lob', mein' Seel', den Herren" (Now praise, my soul, the Lord).
Further, Bach sets three well-known Trinity Time Communion Hymns: Heermann's "Wo soll ich fliehen hin"(Where should I fly from here), Hubert's "Allein zu dir Herr Jesus Christ" (On you alone, Lord Jesus Christ), and Luther's "Dies sind die heilige Zehn Gebot" (These are the holy 10 Commandments).
I. Chorales in cantatas for Third & Fourth Sundays after Trinity
Cycle 1, 1723 (two-part and double-bill cantatas)
Bach's third Leipzig cycle two-part Cantata, BWV 21 "Ich hatte viel Bekümmernis" (I had much affliction in my heart), was presented on June 13, the Third Sunday after Trinity. Composed in Weimar, it uses two stanzas of the popular chorale, Georg Neumark `s 1657 (7 verse) "Wer nur den lieben Gott läßt walten" (Whoever lets only the dear God reign"). It is found in Movement No. 9, chorus (Psalm 116/7), "Sei nun wieder zufrieden" (Be satisfied again now, my soul), quote from Epistle (1 Peter 5:7), followed by the tenor chorale (S. 2) "Was helfen uns die schweren Sorgen?" (What help to us are heavy sorrows), the continued Psalm chorus response, "denn der Herr tut dir Guts" (for the Lord does good to you.) . The soprano chorale setting of Stanza 5 concludes the movement: Denk nicht in deiner Drangsalshitze, / Daß du von Gott verlassen seist, (Do not think in the heat of your distress / that you have been abandoned by God).
The <omne tempore> chorale, "Wer nur den lieben Gott läßt walten," was one of Bach's favorites and one of his earliest uses in a cantata, perhaps dating to the lost 1709 Mühlhausen Town Council Cantata BWV Anh. 192. Found in the 1682 <Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch> (NLGB) as hymn No. 787 but not designated for particular services, Bach used the very popular Neumark tune and text in Chorale Cantata BWV 93, for the Fifth Sunday after Easter, the service designation found in the Leipzig, Dresden and Weißenfels hymn books of Bach's time, says Stiller (<JSB & Liturgical Life in Leipzig>: 242). The Neumark melody is found in the plain chorale, BWV 434 in A Major, "Trust in God," Hänssler complete Bach Edition V.85, and in the chorale prelude Orgelbüchlein, BWV 642, "Christian Life and Conduct." More about Bach's extensive use of this chorale, also set to two other texts, "Wer weiß, wie nahe mir mein Ende" (Chorale Cantata BWV 27 for Trinity +16) and "Ich armer Mensch, ich armer Sünder" (Chorale Cantata BWV 55, for Trinity +22) -- neither in the NLGB -- will be found in the BCW discussion in three weeks (July 10) of Chorale Cantata BWV 93, as well as Rudolstadt Cantata 88 for the following week (July 17). BCW text: www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale052-Eng3.htm
On the Fourth Sunday after Trinity in the first Leipzig cycle, June 20, 1723, Bach presented his firdouble bill of Cantatas BWV 185 (a Weimar repeat) and newly-composed Cantata BWV 24 before and after the sermon, respectively, each using quite popular chorales:
*Cantata BWV 185 "Barmherziges Herze der ewigen Liebe" (Merciful heart of eternal love), also repeated ?1746-47, with closing plain chorale, No. 6, Agricola's, "Ich ruf zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ" (I call to Thee, S.1). This chorale played a major role in the Trinity Time services in Leipzig, beginning on the Second Sunday after Trinity as the Hymn of the Day.
"Ich ruf zu dir Herr Jesu Christ" (I call to you, Lord Jesus Christ) in the <Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch> (NLGB 627) is one of the most ubiquitous Trinity Time chorales. The Johann Agricola ?1529 five-stanza chorale is assigned in the NLGB as the Hymn of the Day for the Second, 19th and 21st Sundays after Trinity and as a communion hymn on the Sundays after Trinity +5, +6, +8, and +22. Bach chose "Ich ruft zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ" as the subject of Chorale Cantata BWV 177 (BCW Discussion June 26), for the Fourth Sunday after Trinity, presented in 1732, to fill that service gap in Cycle 2. Bach also uses the first stanza as the closing chorale with violin obbligato (No. 6) in Cantata BWV 185, "Barmherziges Herze der ewigen Liebe" (Merciful heart of love everlasting [by Richard Stokes]), premiered in Weimar in 1715 and possibly repeated in 1716, in Leipzig in 1723 and 1746-47. During the pre-Cantata Cycle 3 Trinity Time of 1725, a libretto book shows that for the Third Sunday after Trinity, June 17, the entire chorale is printed as a pure-hymn cantata but is not related to Cantata BWV 177. It is also listed as the NLGB Hymn of the Day for the Third Sunday After Epiphany <omne tempore>ordinary time, as well as for Septuagesimae and Sexagesimae Sundays before Lent. The melody of Johann Agricola's 1529 five-verse hymn appears as a chorale prelude in the Orgelbüchelin (No. 91), BWV 639, in the fifth <omne tempore> listing of 26 after the Catechism, under the heading "Christian Life and Conduct." Its variant setting is BWV Anh.II 73.
*Cantata BWV 24, "Ein ungefärbt Gemüte" (An unstained mind of truth), closing chorale No. 6, Heerman, "O Gott, du frommer Gott" (O God, thou very God), NLGB 564, "Christian Life," Hänssler complete Bach Edition V.83, plain chorale BWV 399 in G Major. BCW text: www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale013-Eng3.htm
Melody uses: BCW, www.bach-cantatas.com/CM/O-Gott-du-frommer-Gott.htm
For Leipzig Cycle 2 in 1724, Bach set two chorale Cantatas, BWV 135, "Ach Herr, mich armen Sünder," for the Third Sunday after Trinity, June 25, and a week later, BWV 10, "Meine Seele erhebt den Herren" (German Magnificat) for the Feast of the Visitation, which fell coincidentally on the Fourth Sunday after Trinity, July 2.
*Chorale Cantata BWV 135 "Ach Herr, mich armen Sünder" (Ah Lord, poor sinner that I am), (NLGB 655); text (6 stanzas), Cyriakus Schneegaß (1597), based on Psalm 6 (Prayer for Help in Time of Trouble); melody, Hans Leo Hassler "Befiehl du deine Wege" (Herzlich tut mich verlangen, Passion chorale) 1601; Bach usage: chorale Cantata BWV 135 (Trinity +3) 1724. Bach did not set the hymn as Orgelbüchlein Catechism chorale prelude No. 73, "Confession, Penitence, and Justification" but did set the melody in the possibly very young Bach miscellaneous organ chorale prelude BWV 742. BCW text: www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale069-Eng3.htm
*Chorale Cantata "Meine Seele erhebt den Herren" (German Magnificat, Mary's Canticle) for the Feast of the Visitation, July 2; text, Luke 1:46-55, possibly arranged by Martin Luther, anonymous melody (9 stanzas and German Lesser Doxology), see BCW Discussion, December 16, 2012.
Pre-Cycle 3, 1725. A surviving service cantata libretto book provides the texts for five cantatas presented on the Third, Fifth and Sixth Sundays after Trinity, June 17 to July 8, 1725 as well as two feast days. For the Third Sunday After Trinity, that coincidentally fell on the Feast of St. John the Baptist, June 24, the Neumeister 1711 text, "Gelobet sei der Herr, der Gott Israel," is listed, possibly in the Georg Philipp Telemann setting, TVWV 1:596, which survives. For Monday, July 2, the Feast of the Visitation, the Neumeister 1711 setting of the German Magnificant, "Meine Seele erhebt den Herren," is printed. For the Third Sunday after Trinity, June 17, the full Agricola text of the chorale "Ich ruf zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ" is printed. Bach set the same text as a pure-hymn Cantata BWV 177, for the Fourth Sunday after Trinity, in 1732 and repeated in 1742. BCW text: www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/BWV177-Eng3.htm (Francis Browne translation)≥
There are no settings of cantatas for the Third and Fourth Sundays after Trinity in the 1726 third cycle or the 1728 published Picander Cycle: July 7, 1726 (Trinity +3), Rudolstadt text "Wo sich aber der Gottlose bekehret" (no musical setting found); July 14 (Trinity +4), Rudolstadt text "Ich tue Barmherzeges an viel Tausend" (no musical setting found); July 3, 1729 (Trinity +3), P44 Wohin, mein Herz?; and July 10, 1728
07/10/28, Trinity +4 P45 "Lass sie spotten, lass sie lachen"; No. 6, plain chorale "Jesu, meine Freude" (Jesus, my joy), Johann Franck (6 stanzas) 1653, Johann Crüger 1653 melody; S. 6, "Weicht, ihr Trauergeister" (Go away, mournful spirits), ?BWV358 in D Major=??1105, "Jesus Hymn," Hänssler complete Bach Edition V.84
II. Trinity Time Psalm Hymns
Of the five Psalm Hymns associated with early Trinity Time in the 1682 <Das Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch> three were set by Bach:
NLGB 665, 666. Two settings of Psalm 23 (The Lord Our Shepherd) are used in Bach cantatas for the Second Sunday after Easter (<Misericordias Domini) but are found in the Trinity Time <omne tempore section>, both using the German Mass Gloria melody, "Allein Gott in der Höh' sei Ehr'" (To God alone on high be glory), of Nickolaus Decius (1522). Neither communion hymn is designated for a particular service in the church year but often are sung during <omne tempore> services, such as the Third Sunday in Trinity where the Gospel lesson relates to lost sheep. NLGB No. 665, "Der Herr ist mein getreuer Hirt, hält mir," (The Lord is my faithful shepherd, he hold me) Wolfgang Meusel, (1530), 5 stanzas, Chorale Cantata BWV 112; and NLGB No. 666, "Der Herr ist mein getreuer Hirt, dem ich" (The Lord is my faithful shepherd, in whom I) Cornelius Becker (1598), 3 stanzas, opening chorale fantasia, BWV104/6(S.1), and soprano aria, BWV 85/3(S.1).
NLGB 667. "Wer in dem Schutz des Höchestein ist," no Bach setting.
NLGB 670. Luther's popular Reformation hymn, "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott" (A Mighty Fortress is our God) (4 stanzas) is a setting of Psalm 46, God is with us [Emmanuel]. In the NLGB 670, it is found under "The Word of God & Christian Church"; Hymn of the Day, Trinity +23; communion hymn, Trinity +27, and for Lent 2+, 3+). Bach's uses are the Chorale Cantata BWV 80 (Reformation, 1730), as well as plain chorale settings, BWV 302=247/112 (St. Mark Passion, S.4), BWV 303=?80a/6 (Trinity 3 1715, S.2)=?80b/1 (1723, S.1), BWV 80/8 (S.4). One miscellaneous Chorale Prelude exists, BWV 720 while the hymn incipit listed in the Orgelbüchelin (No. 116, "Psalm Hymn," is not set). www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/BWV80-Eng8.htm
NLGB. 685. "Wer sich des Höchestein Schirm vertraut," no Bach setting.
NLGB 686 "Nun lob', mein' Seel', den Herren" (Now praise, my soul, the Lord), Johann Gramman 1525, 5 stanzas is a setting of Psalm 103, Love of God, with the Johann Kugelmann 1540 melody. Bach uses (all plain chorales except BWV 51/4) are: BWV 389 in C Major (Praise & Thanksgiving, Hänssler v. 83), BWV 390 in C Major (Psalm chorale, Hänssler, v.82); Cantatas BWV 17/7 (Trinity +14, S.3), BWV 29/8 in D w/3 tps., timp.; Council, S.1), 51/4 (S. aria, Trinity +15, S.5), BWV 167 (Johns Day, S.5); motet chorales, Cantata BWV 28/2(Sunday after Christmas)=Motet BWV 231=BWV Anh. 160/2 (S.5), 225/2 (S.3). BCW: www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale136-Eng3.htm
III. Service Chorales, Third Sunday after Trinity (NLGB )
HYMN OF DAY (de tempore) Trinity +3
"Ich ruf zu dir Herr Jesu Christ," see Chorales in Cantatas for Third & Fourth Sundays Trinity, Cantata BWV 185. Text, BCW www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/BWV177-Eng3.htm
CHORALES for Pulpit and Communion Hymns:
"Erbarm dich mein, O Herre Gott" (Be merciful to me, O Lord God), Erhardt Hegenwalt 1524 5 stanzas, melody Johann Walter Gesangbuch 1521 (NLGB 673 for use with the Third, 11th, 14th and 22nd Sundays after Trinity), settying of Psalm 51, Prayer for Forgiveness (penitence). Bach's uses: plain chorale in BWV 305 in C Major, miscellaneous organ chorale prelude BWV 721; listed in the Orgelbüchelin <omne tempore> Catechism (No. 68, Confession) but not set. Bach also adapted Pergolesi's <Stabat Mater> (1736) to a German text of Psalm 51 between 1745-47 for Trinity Sunday +11, "Tilge, Höchester, meine Sünden" (Cancel, Highest, my sins), BWV 1083. BCW Discussion, Week of June 24, 2012
"O Herre Gott begnade mich" (O Lord God, pardon me), NLGB 676 Tr.+8, 11+, 13+, 19+, is the Bishop Coverdale setting of Psalm 51 (Prayer for Forgiveness) 5 stanzas; psalm tune, Matthäus Greitter 1525 (Calvin published in 1539). Greitter, cf Trinity +2, "Es wolle Gott uns gnädig sein" 1524 (NLGB 680). English translation: http://matthaeusglyptes.blogspot.com/2009_04_01_archive.htm, scroll down to "O Herre Gott." No Bach use extant.
"Wo soll ich fliehen hin"(Where should I fly from here), Johann Heerman 1630 (11 stanzas). NLGB 523 (Communion, Trinity Sunday +3,) Chorale Cantata BWV 5 (Trinity +19), Cantata BWV 89/6 (S.7, "Mir mangelt zwar sehr viel" [I do indeed lack many things] Trinity +22), BWV 136/6 (S. 9, "Dein Blut, der edle Saft, / hat solche Stärk und Kraft" [your blood, the noble liquid, /has such strength and might] Trinity +8), BWV 199/6 (S. aria, S.3, "Ich, dein betrübtes Kind, / werf alle meine Sünd" [I, your troubled child, /
cast all my sins], Trinity +11. organ chorale preludes BWV 646 (Schubler chorale), miscellaneous BWV 694; listed in the Orgelbüchelin <omne tempore> Catechism (No. 74, Confession) but not set. J. H. Schein 1627 melody originally associated with text "Auf meinen lieben Gott" (In my beloved God) before 1603 (NLGB 776). BCW: http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale021-Eng3.htm
"Allein zu dir Herr Jesus Christ" (On you alone, Lord Jesus Christ), Conrad Hubert 1540 (4 stanzas), melody anonymous 1540. NLGB 512, Hymn of the Day, Third Sunday After Epiphany; Trinity +11, 21, 22, 24. Bach's uses: Chorale Cantata BWV 33 (33/6 plain chorale, S.4, "Ehr sei Gott in dem höchsten Thron" [Honour be to God on his highest throne, Francis Browne]; plain chorale BWV 261 in D-B Major; Neumeister organ chorale prelude BWV 1100; listed in the Orgelbüchelin <omne tempore> Catechism (No. 70, Confession) but not set. BCW: http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale111-Eng3.htm
NLGB: "and others from Confession and Repentance"
IV. Service Chorales, Fourth Sunday after Trinity (NLGB)
HYMN OF DAY (de tempore) Trinity +4
"O Herre Gott begnade mich" (O Lord God, have mercy on me). See above, Trinity +3, CHORALES for Pulpit and Communion Hymns
"Herr Jesu Christ, dich uns wend" (NLBG 817). See: Trinity +1 Pulpit Hymn (also found in Geneva Psalter 652) Translation: http://www.cyberhymnal.org/htm/l/j/ljcbpnow.htm
CHORALES for Pulpit and Communion Hymns:
"Wo soll ich fleihen hin" (NLGB 523), See above, Trinity +3, CHORALES for Pulpit and Communion Hymns
"Allein zu dir Herr Jesu Christ" (NLGB 512), See above, Trinity +3, CHORALES for Pulpit and Communion Hymns
And "others from [the] Confession and Penitence [section]"
The NLGB (p.297) also lists the following three hymns for the Fourth Sunday After Trinity:
1. "Dies sind die heilige Zehn Gebot" (These are the holy 10 Commandments), Martin Luther text (12 stanzas); melody, German folk hymn, `In gottes namen faren wir" (In God's name we are traveling). NLGB 490, Pulpit and Communion Hymns: Tr+4, +6, 13+, 18+; also First Sunday after Epiphany). Bach's uses: trumpet melody in opening chorale chorus, Cantata BWV 77, "Du sollt Gott, deinen Herren, Lieben" (Thou shalt love the Lord thy God, by Richard Stokes), Trinity +13; plain chorale BWV 298 in G Major (Catechism); Orgelbüchelin first Catechism chorale (No. 61), BWV 635; Clavierübung Catechism chorales BWV 678 (canon), BWV 679 (fugue) in G Major. Text: http://www.fullbooks.com/The-Hymns-of-Martin-Luther1.htm, Book 2.
Diess sind die heil'gen zehn Gebot'.
That Man a godly Life might live.
_Melody (from an old German Processional), Wittenberg,_ 1525.
_Harmony by_ M. PRAETORIUS, 1609.
1. That man a godly life might live,
God did these ten commandments give
By his true servant Moses, high
Upon the mount Sinai.
Have mercy, Lord.
2. I am thy God and Lord alone,
No other God besides me own;
On my great mercy venture thee,
With all thy heart love thou me.
Have mercy, Lord.
3. By idle word and speech profane
Take not my holy name in vain;
And praise not aught as good and true
But what God doth say and do.
Have mercy, Lord.
4. Hallow the day which God hath blest,
That thou and all thy house may rest;
Keep hand and heart from labor free,
That God may so work in thee.
Have mercy, Lord.
5. Give to thy parents honor due,
Be dutiful and loving too;
And help them when their strength decays;
So shalt thou have length of days.
Have mercy, Lord.
6. Kill thou not out of evil will,
Nor hate, nor render ill for ill;
Be patient and of gentle mood,
And to thy foe do thou good.
Have mercy, Lord.
7. Be faithful to thy marriage vows,
Thy heart give only to thy spouse;
Keep thy life pure, and lest thou sin
Keep thyself with discipline.
Have mercy, Lord.
8. Steal not; oppressive acts abhor;
Nor wring their life-blood from the poor;
But open wide thy loving hand
To all the poor in the land.
Have mercy, Lord.
9. Bear not false witness, nor belie
Thy neighbor by foul calumny;
Defend his innocence from blame,
With charity hide his shame.
Have mercy, Lord.
10. Thy neighbor's wife desire thou not,
His house, nor aught that he hath got;
But wish that his such good may be
As thy heart doth wish for thee.
Have mercy, Lord.
11. God these commandments gave, therein
To show thee, son of man, thy sin,
And make thee also well perceive
How man for God ought to live.
Have merc, Lord.
12. Help us, Lord Jesus Christ, for we
A Mediator have in thee;
Without thy help our works so vain
Merit naught but endless pain.
Have mercy, Lord.
1. Diess sind die heil'gen zehn Gebot',
Die uns gab unser Herre Gott
Durch Mosen, seinen Diener treu,
Hoch auf dem Berg Sinai.
2. Ich bin allein dein Gott der Herr,
Kein' Goetter sollst du haben mehr,
Du sollt mir ganz vertrauen dich,
Von Herzengrund lieben mich.
3. Du sollt nicht brauchen zu Unehr'n
Den Namen Gottes, deines Herrn;
Du sollt nicht preisen recht noch gut,
Ohn' was Gott selbst red't und thut.
4. Du sollt heil'gen den siebent' Tag,
Dass du und dein Haus ruhen mag,
Du sollt von dei'm Thun lassen ab,
Das Gott sein Werk in dir hab'.
5. Du sollt ehr'n und gehorsam sein
Dem Vater und der Mutter dein,
Und wo dein Hand ihn'n dienen kann,
So wirst du lang's Leben han.
6. Du sollt nicht toedten zorniglich,
Nicht hassen noch selbst raechen dich,
Geduld haben und sanften Muth
Und auch dem Feind thun das Gut'.
7. Dein' Eh' sollt du bewahren rein,
Dass auch dein Herz kein andere mein',
Und halten keusch das Leben dein
Mit Zucht und Maessigkeit fein.
8. Du sollt nicht stehlen Geld noch Gut,
Nicht wuchern Jemands Schweiss und Blut;
Du solt aufthun dein' milde Hand
Den Armen in deinem Land.
9. Du sollt kein falscher Zeuge sein,
Nicht luegen auf den Naechsten dein,
Sein' Unschuld sollt auch retten du
Und seine Schand' decken zu.
10. Du sollt dein's Naechsten Weib und Haus
Begehren nicht, noch etwas d'raus,
Du sollt ihm wuenschen alles Gut',
Wie dir dein Herz selber thut.
11. Die Gebot, all' uns geben sind,
Dass du dein Suend', o Menschenkind,
Erkennen sollt, und lernen wohl,
Wie man fuer Gott leben soll.
12. Das helf' uns der Herr Jesus Christ,
Der unser Mittler worden ist:
Es ist mit unserm Thun verlor'n,
Verdienen doch eitel Zorn.
2. "Mensch willtu leben seliglich" (Man, if you will live blessedly) (NLGB 493), Luther's second hymn on the 10 Commandments; not set by Bach.
3. "O Mensch willtu vor Gott bestahn" (O Man, will thou before God stand) (NLGB 494), not set by Bach.