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Sundays & Holidays in the Lifetime of J.S. Bach | Performance Dates of Bach’s Vocal Works
Readings from the Epistles and the Gospels for each Event | Motets & Chorales for Events in the LCY
Discussions: Events in the Lutheran Church Year: Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4 | Part 5 | Part 6 | Readings from the Bible

Musical Context of Bach Cantatas
Motets & Chorales for 3rd Sunday after Trinity

 

Readings: Epistle: 1 Peter 5: 6-11; Gospel: Luke 15: 1-10

Dates in the lifetime of J.S. Bach, including works composed for the event

Motets and Chorales for the 3rd Sunday after Trinity (Trinity 3)

Douglas Cowling wrote (May 30, 2011):
THE MUSICAL CONTEXT OF BACH'S CANTATAS:
MOTETS AND CHORALES FOR THE THIRD SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY

SOURCES:

* BACH'S HYMN BOOK:
Jürgen Grimm, "Das neu [?] Leipziger Gesangbuch des Gottfried Vopelius (Leipzig 1682)",
Berlin: Merseburger, 1969.
ML 3168 G75

* BACH'S MOTET COLLECTION:
Otto Riemer, "Erhard Bodenschatz und sein Florilegium Portense"
Schünigen: Kaminsky,1927
ML 410 B67R4

NOTES for TRINITY 3:
Can anyone identify the composer of the motet?

1) MOTETS for Introit, Before Sermon at mass and vespers for Choir II, and During Communion:
"Pater Peccavi" (8 voices) - J.B. Pinellus (?)
Text: Luke 15: 19 (Prodigal Son)
"Father, I have sinned against heaven and against you. I am no longer worthy to be called your son; make me like one of your hired servants.¹"

2) HYMN OF DAY (de tempore)
"Ich ruf zu dir Herr Jesu Christ"

3) CHORALES for Pulpit and Communion Hymns:
"Ebarm dich mein O Herre Gott"
"O Herre Gott begnade mich"
"Wo Soll ich fliehen bin"
"Allein Zu dich Herr Jesus Christ"

"and others from Confession and Repentance"

4) RESPONSARIES for the Sundays after Trinity
The Vopelius hymn book includes 13 plainsong responsaries for use on Sundays after Trinity. These chants were probably sung ad libitum after the scriptural reading at Matins which was sung each Sunday at 5 am in St. Nicholas Church by Bach's scholarship students under the direction of one of the prefects.

"Homo Quidam"
"Honor Virtus"
"Praeparate corda vestra"
"Audi Domine hymnum"
"Ne derelinquas"
"Supers salutem"
"Memento mei" [Liber Usualis p. 1701]
"Paucitas dierum"
"Omni tempore benedic"
"Nos alium Deum"
"Spem in Alium"
"Tua est potentia"
"Aspices Domine de sede"
"Aspices Domine desolata civitas"

 

Trinity +3 & 4 Chorales

William Hoffman wrote (June 22, 2011):
Bach's observance of the Third and Fourth Sundays after Trinity in Leipzig shows his continued consistency in the creation of Trinity Time service cantatas and appropriate plain and organ chorale settings. Responding to similar pairings of themes for these two Sundays with the overall concept of Trust in God through humility and mercy, the didactic chorales build on the principals in the first two Sundays after Trinity, emphasizing God's love and grace for all. Key Trinity Time chorales are used interchangeably, while Bach begins introducing positive, familiar Psalm and Communion Hymns.

Bach uses four well-known trinity Time chorales in the five surviving cantatas for the Third and Fourth Sundays after Trinity: Neumark's "Wer nur den lieben Gott läßt walten" (BWV 21/9), Agricola's "Ich ruf zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ" (BWV 185/6 and Chorale Cantata BWV 177), Heermann's "O Gott, du frommer Gott" (BWV 24/6), and "Ach Herr, mich armen Sünder" with the Passion chorale melody (Chorale Cantata BWV 135)

Bach's cantatas continually adhere to the Gospel teachings as emphasized in the sermons. For the Third Sunday after Trinity, Bach's two extant cantatas, BWV 21 and BWV 135, reflect the Epistle, 1 Peter 5: 6-11 (God's humble flock), especially in verse 7: "Cast all your cares upon Him, for he cares for you," especially Cantata BWV 21 with a direct quotation. The Gospel (Luke 15:1-10 touches on the Good Shepherd theme first found in Second Sunday after Easter (Misericordias Domini) and the Lost Sheep in the Third Day of Pentecost (Whit Tuesday), emphasizing the treasure found in the Parable of the lost sheep and the lost coin.

Bach's three extant cantatas for the Fourth Sunday after Trinity, BWV 185, BWV 24 and the belated BWV 177, observe the spirit of the day's Epistle, Romans 8: 18-23 (Hope in Future Glory ), especially verse 9. "All of creation awaits with eager longing for God to reveal his children," and the Gospel (Luke 6: 36-42), be merciful (compassionate), do not judge, as shown in the parable of the Blind leading the Blind

Bach also uses three popular early Trinity Time Psalm Chorales found in the NLGB: Psalm 23, both setting of "Der Herr ist mein getreuer Hirt" (The Lord is my Faithful Shepherd); Psalm 46, Luther's "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott" (A Mighty Fortress is our God); and Psalm 103, Cyriakus Schneegaß' "Nun lob', mein' Seel', den Herren" (Now praise, my soul, the Lord).

Further, Bach sets three well-known Trinity Time Communion Hymns: Heermann's "Wo soll ich fliehen hin"(Where should I fly from here), Hubert's "Allein zu dir Herr Jesus Christ" (On you alone, Lord Jesus Christ), and Luther's "Dies sind die heilige Zehn Gebot" (These are the holy 10 Commandments).

I. Chorales in cantatas for Third & Fourth Sundays after Trinity

Cycle 1, 1723 (two-part and double-bill cantatas)

Bach's third Leipzig cycle two-part Cantata, BWV 21 "Ich hatte viel Bekümmernis" (I had much affliction in my heart), was presented on June 13, the Third Sunday after Trinity. Composed in Weimar, it uses two stanzas of the popular chorale, Georg Neumark `s 1657 (7 verse) "Wer nur den lieben Gott läßt walten" (Whoever lets only the dear God reign"). It is found in Movement No. 9, chorus (Psalm 116/7), "Sei nun wieder zufrieden" (Be satisfied again now, my soul), quote from Epistle (1 Peter 5:7), followed by the tenor chorale (S. 2) "Was helfen uns die schweren Sorgen?" (What help to us are heavy sorrows), the continued Psalm chorus response, "denn der Herr tut dir Guts" (for the Lord does good to you.) . The soprano chorale setting of Stanza 5 concludes the movement: Denk nicht in deiner Drangsalshitze, / Daß du von Gott verlassen seist, (Do not think in the heat of your distress / that you have been abandoned by God).

The <omne tempore> chorale, "Wer nur den lieben Gott läßt walten," was one of Bach's favorites and one of his earliest uses in a cantata, perhaps dating to the lost 1709 Mühlhausen Town Council Cantata BWV Anh. 192. Found in the 1682 <Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch> (NLGB) as hymn No. 787 but not designated for particular services, Bach used the very popular Neumark tune and text in Chorale Cantata BWV 93, for the Fifth Sunday after Easter, the service designation found in the Leipzig, Dresden and Weißenfels hymn books of Bach's time, says Stiller (<JSB & Liturgical Life in Leipzig>: 242). The Neumark melody is found in the plain chorale, BWV 434 in A Major, "Trust in God," Hänssler complete Bach Edition V.85, and in the chorale prelude Orgelbüchlein, BWV 642, "Christian Life and Conduct." More about Bach's extensive use of this chorale, also set to two other texts, "Wer weiß, wie nahe mir mein Ende" (Chorale Cantata BWV 27 for Trinity +16) and "Ich armer Mensch, ich armer Sünder" (Chorale Cantata BWV 55, for Trinity +22) -- neither in the NLGB -- will be found in the BCW discussion in three weeks (July 10) of Chorale Cantata BWV 93, as well as Rudolstadt Cantata 88 for the following week (July 17). BCW text: www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale052-Eng3.htm


On the Fourth Sunday after Trinity in the first Leipzig cycle, June 20, 1723, Bach presented his firdouble bill of Cantatas BWV 185 (a Weimar repeat) and newly-composed Cantata BWV 24 before and after the sermon, respectively, each using quite popular chorales:

*Cantata BWV 185 "Barmherziges Herze der ewigen Liebe" (Merciful heart of eternal love), also repeated ?1746-47, with closing plain chorale, No. 6, Agricola's, "Ich ruf zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ" (I call to Thee, S.1). This chorale played a major role in the Trinity Time services in Leipzig, beginning on the Second Sunday after Trinity as the Hymn of the Day.

"Ich ruf zu dir Herr Jesu Christ" (I call to you, Lord Jesus Christ) in the <Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch> (NLGB 627) is one of the most ubiquitous Trinity Time chorales. The Johann Agricola ?1529 five-stanza chorale is assigned in the NLGB as the Hymn of the Day for the Second, 19th and 21st Sundays after Trinity and as a communion hymn on the Sundays after Trinity +5, +6, +8, and +22. Bach chose "Ich ruft zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ" as the subject of Chorale Cantata BWV 177 (BCW Discussion June 26), for the Fourth Sunday after Trinity, presented in 1732, to fill that service gap in Cycle 2. Bach also uses the first stanza as the closing chorale with violin obbligato (No. 6) in Cantata BWV 185, "Barmherziges Herze der ewigen Liebe" (Merciful heart of love everlasting [by Richard Stokes]), premiered in Weimar in 1715 and possibly repeated in 1716, in Leipzig in 1723 and 1746-47. During the pre-Cantata Cycle 3 Trinity Time of 1725, a libretto book shows that for the Third Sunday after Trinity, June 17, the entire chorale is printed as a pure-hymn cantata but is not related to Cantata BWV 177. It is also listed as the NLGB Hymn of the Day for the Third Sunday After Epiphany <omne tempore>ordinary time, as well as for Septuagesimae and Sexagesimae Sundays before Lent. The melody of Johann Agricola's 1529 five-verse hymn appears as a chorale prelude in the Orgelbüchelin (No. 91), BWV 639, in the fifth <omne tempore> listing of 26 after the Catechism, under the heading "Christian Life and Conduct." Its variant setting is BWV Anh.II 73.

*Cantata BWV 24, "Ein ungefärbt Gemüte" (An unstained mind of truth), closing chorale No. 6, Heerman, "O Gott, du frommer Gott" (O God, thou very God), NLGB 564, "Christian Life," Hänssler complete Bach Edition V.83, plain chorale BWV 399 in G Major. BCW text: www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale013-Eng3.htm
Melody uses: BCW, www.bach-cantatas.com/CM/O-Gott-du-frommer-Gott.htm

For Leipzig Cycle 2 in 1724, Bach set two chorale Cantatas, BWV 135, "Ach Herr, mich armen Sünder," for the Third Sunday after Trinity, June 25, and a week later, BWV 10, "Meine Seele erhebt den Herren" (German Magnificat) for the Feast of the Visitation, which fell coincidentally on the Fourth Sunday after Trinity, July 2.

*Chorale Cantata BWV 135 "Ach Herr, mich armen Sünder" (Ah Lord, poor sinner that I am), (NLGB 655); text (6 stanzas), Cyriakus Schneegaß (1597), based on Psalm 6 (Prayer for Help in Time of Trouble); melody, Hans Leo Hassler "Befiehl du deine Wege" (Herzlich tut mich verlangen, Passion chorale) 1601; Bach usage: chorale Cantata BWV 135 (Trinity +3) 1724. Bach did not set the hymn as Orgelbüchlein Catechism chorale prelude No. 73, "Confession, Penitence, and Justification" but did set the melody in the possibly very young Bach miscellaneous organ chorale prelude BWV 742. BCW text: www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale069-Eng3.htm

*Chorale Cantata "Meine Seele erhebt den Herren" (German Magnificat, Mary's Canticle) for the Feast of the Visitation, July 2; text, Luke 1:46-55, possibly arranged by Martin Luther, anonymous melody (9 stanzas and German Lesser Doxology), see BCW Discussion, December 16, 2012.


Pre-Cycle 3, 1725. A surviving service cantata libretto book provides the texts for five cantatas presented on the Third, Fifth and Sixth Sundays after Trinity, June 17 to July 8, 1725 as well as two feast days. For the Third Sunday After Trinity, that coincidentally fell on the Feast of St. John the Baptist, June 24, the Neumeister 1711 text, "Gelobet sei der Herr, der Gott Israel," is listed, possibly in the Georg Philipp Telemann setting, TVWV 1:596, which survives. For Monday, July 2, the Feast of the Visitation, the Neumeister 1711 setting of the German Magnificant, "Meine Seele erhebt den Herren," is printed. For the Third Sunday after Trinity, June 17, the full Agricola text of the chorale "Ich ruf zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ" is printed. Bach set the same text as a pure-hymn Cantata BWV 177, for the Fourth Sunday after Trinity, in 1732 and repeated in 1742. BCW text: www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/BWV177-Eng3.htm (Francis Browne translation)&#8805;


There are no settings of cantatas for the Third and Fourth Sundays after Trinity in the 1726 third cycle or the 1728 published Picander Cycle: July 7, 1726 (Trinity +3), Rudolstadt text "Wo sich aber der Gottlose bekehret" (no musical setting found); July 14 (Trinity +4), Rudolstadt text "Ich tue Barmherzeges an viel Tausend" (no musical setting found); July 3, 1729 (Trinity +3), P44 Wohin, mein Herz?; and July 10, 1728
07/10/28, Trinity +4 P45 "Lass sie spotten, lass sie lachen"; No. 6, plain chorale "Jesu, meine Freude" (Jesus, my joy), Johann Franck (6 stanzas) 1653, Johann Crüger 1653 melody; S. 6, "Weicht, ihr Trauergeister" (Go away, mournful spirits), ?BWV358 in D Major=??1105, "Jesus Hymn," Hänssler complete Bach Edition V.84


II. Trinity Time Psalm Hymns

Of the five Psalm Hymns associated with early Trinity Time in the 1682 <Das Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch> three were set by Bach:

NLGB 665, 666. Two settings of Psalm 23 (The Lord Our Shepherd) are used in Bach cantatas for the Second Sunday after Easter (<Misericordias Domini) but are found in the Trinity Time <omne tempore section>, both using the German Mass Gloria melody, "Allein Gott in der Höh' sei Ehr'" (To God alone on high be glory), of Nickolaus Decius (1522). Neither communion hymn is designated for a particular service in the church year but often are sung during <omne tempore> services, such as the Third Sunday in Trinity where the Gospel lesson relates to lost sheep. NLGB No. 665, "Der Herr ist mein getreuer Hirt, hält mir," (The Lord is my faithful shepherd, he hold me) Wolfgang Meusel, (1530), 5 stanzas, Chorale Cantata BWV 112; and NLGB No. 666, "Der Herr ist mein getreuer Hirt, dem ich" (The Lord is my faithful shepherd, in whom I) Cornelius Becker (1598), 3 stanzas, opening chorale fantasia, BWV104/6(S.1), and soprano aria, BWV 85/3(S.1).
BCW: www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale094-Eng3.htm

NLGB 667. "Wer in dem Schutz des Höchestein ist," no Bach setting.

NLGB 670. Luther's popular Reformation hymn, "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott" (A Mighty Fortress is our God) (4 stanzas) is a setting of Psalm 46, God is with us [Emmanuel]. In the NLGB 670, it is found under "The Word of God & Christian Church"; Hymn of the Day, Trinity +23; communion hymn, Trinity +27, and for Lent 2+, 3+). Bach's uses are the Chorale Cantata BWV 80 (Reformation, 1730), as well as plain chorale settings, BWV 302=247/112 (St. Mark Passion, S.4), BWV 303=?80a/6 (Trinity 3 1715, S.2)=?80b/1 (1723, S.1), BWV 80/8 (S.4). One miscellaneous Chorale Prelude exists, BWV 720 while the hymn incipit listed in the Orgelbüchelin (No. 116, "Psalm Hymn," is not set). www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/BWV80-Eng8.htm

NLGB. 685. "Wer sich des Höchestein Schirm vertraut," no Bach setting.

NLGB 686 "Nun lob', mein' Seel', den Herren" (Now praise, my soul, the Lord), Johann Gramman 1525, 5 stanzas is a setting of Psalm 103, Love of God, with the Johann Kugelmann 1540 melody. Bach uses (all plain chorales except BWV 51/4) are: BWV 389 in C Major (Praise & Thanksgiving, Hänssler v. 83), BWV 390 in C Major (Psalm chorale, Hänssler, v.82); Cantatas BWV 17/7 (Trinity +14, S.3), BWV 29/8 in D w/3 tps., timp.; Council, S.1), 51/4 (S. aria, Trinity +15, S.5), BWV 167 (Johns Day, S.5); motet chorales, Cantata BWV 28/2(Sunday after Christmas)=Motet BWV 231=BWV Anh. 160/2 (S.5), 225/2 (S.3). BCW: www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale136-Eng3.htm


III. Service Chorales, Third Sunday after Trinity (NLGB )

HYMN OF DAY (de tempore) Trinity +3
"Ich ruf zu dir Herr Jesu Christ," see Chorales in Cantatas for Third & Fourth Sundays Trinity, Cantata BWV 185. Text, BCW www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/BWV177-Eng3.htm

CHORALES for Pulpit and Communion Hymns:

"Erbarm dich mein, O Herre Gott" (Be merciful to me, O Lord God), Erhardt Hegenwalt 1524 5 stanzas, melody Johann Walter Gesangbuch 1521 (NLGB 673 for use with the Third, 11th, 14th and 22nd Sundays after Trinity), settying of Psalm 51, Prayer for Forgiveness (penitence). Bach's uses: plain chorale in BWV 305 in C Major, miscellaneous organ chorale prelude BWV 721; listed in the Orgelbüchelin <omne tempore> Catechism (No. 68, Confession) but not set. Bach also adapted Pergolesi's <Stabat Mater> (1736) to a German text of Psalm 51 between 1745-47 for Trinity Sunday +11, "Tilge, Höchester, meine Sünden" (Cancel, Highest, my sins), BWV 1083. BCW Discussion, Week of June 24, 2012

"O Herre Gott begnade mich" (O Lord God, pardon me), NLGB 676 Tr.+8, 11+, 13+, 19+, is the Bishop Coverdale setting of Psalm 51 (Prayer for Forgiveness) 5 stanzas; psalm tune, Matthäus Greitter 1525 (Calvin published in 1539). Greitter, cf Trinity +2, "Es wolle Gott uns gnädig sein" 1524 (NLGB 680). English translation: http://matthaeusglyptes.blogspot.com/2009_04_01_archive.html, scroll down to "O Herre Gott." No Bach use extant.

"Wo soll ich fliehen hin"(Where should I fly from here), Johann Heerman 1630 (11 stanzas). NLGB 523 (Communion, Trinity Sunday +3,) Chorale Cantata BWV 5 (Trinity +19), Cantata BWV 89/6 (S.7, "Mir mangelt zwar sehr viel" [I do indeed lack many things] Trinity +22), BWV 136/6 (S. 9, "Dein Blut, der edle Saft, / hat solche Stärk und Kraft" [your blood, the noble liquid, /has such strength and might] Trinity +8), BWV 199/6 (S. aria, S.3, "Ich, dein betrübtes Kind, / werf alle meine Sünd" [I, your troubled child, /
cast all my sins], Trinity +11. organ chorale preludes BWV 646 (Schubler chorale), miscellaneous BWV 694; listed in the Orgelbüchelin <omne tempore> Catechism (No. 74, Confession) but not set. J. H. Schein 1627 melody originally associated with text "Auf meinen lieben Gott" (In my beloved God) before 1603 (NLGB 776). BCW: http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale021-Eng3.htm

"Allein zu dir Herr Jesus Christ" (On you alone, Lord Jesus Christ), Conrad Hubert 1540 (4 stanzas), melody anonymous 1540. NLGB 512, Hymn of the Day, Third Sunday After Epiphany; Trinity +11, 21, 22, 24. Bach's uses: Chorale Cantata BWV 33 (33/6 plain chorale, S.4, "Ehr sei Gott in dem höchsten Thron" [Honour be to God on his highest throne, Francis Browne]; plain chorale BWV 261 in D-B Major; Neumeister organ chorale prelude BWV 1100; listed in the Orgelbüchelin <omne tempore> Catechism (No. 70, Confession) but not set. BCW: http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale111-Eng3.htm

NLGB: "and others from Confession and Repentance"


IV. Service Chorales, Fourth Sunday after Trinity (NLGB)

HYMN OF DAY (de tempore) Trinity +4
"O Herre Gott begnade mich" (O Lord God, have mercy on me). See above, Trinity +3, CHORALES for Pulpit and Communion Hymns

PULPIT HYMN:
"Herr Jesu Christ, dich uns wend" (NLBG 817). See: Trinity +1 Pulpit Hymn (also found in Geneva Psalter 652) Translation: http://www.cyberhymnal.org/htm/l/j/ljcbpnow.htm


CHORALES for Pulpit and Communion Hymns:

"Wo soll ich fleihen hin" (NLGB 523), See above, Trinity +3, CHORALES for Pulpit and Communion Hymns

"Allein zu dir Herr Jesu Christ" (NLGB 512), See above, Trinity +3, CHORALES for Pulpit and Communion Hymns

And "others from [the] Confession and Penitence [section]"

The NLGB (p.297) also lists the following three hymns for the Fourth Sunday After Trinity:

1. "Dies sind die heilige Zehn Gebot" (These are the holy 10 Commandments), Martin Luther text (12 stanzas); melody, German folk hymn, `In gottes namen faren wir" (In God's name we are traveling). NLGB 490, Pulpit and Communion Hymns: Tr+4, +6, 13+, 18+; also First Sunday after Epiphany). Bach's uses: trumpet melody in opening chorale chorus, Cantata BWV 77, "Du sollt Gott, deinen Herren, Lieben" (Thou shalt love the Lord thy God, by Richard Stokes), Trinity +13; plain chorale BWV 298 in G Major (Catechism); Orgelbüchelin first Catechism chorale (No. 61), BWV 635; Clavierübung Catechism chorales BWV 678 (canon), BWV 679 (fugue) in G Major. Text: http://www.fullbooks.com/The-Hymns-of-Martin-Luther1.html, Book 2.

Diess sind die heil'gen zehn Gebot'.
That Man a godly Life might live.

_Melody (from an old German Processional), Wittenberg,_ 1525.
_Harmony by_ M. PRAETORIUS, 1609.

1. That man a godly life might live,
God did these ten commandments give
By his true servant Moses, high
Upon the mount Sinai.
Have mercy, Lord.

2. I am thy God and Lord alone,
No other God besides me own;
On my great mercy venture thee,
With all thy heart love thou me.
Have mercy, Lord.

3. By idle word and speech profane
Take not my holy name in vain;
And praise not aught as good and true
But what God doth say and do.
Have mercy, Lord.

4. Hallow the day which God hath blest,
That thou and all thy house may rest;
Keep hand and heart from labor free,
That God may so work in thee.
Have mercy, Lord.

5. Give to thy parents honor due,
Be dutiful and loving too;
And help them when their strength decays;
So shalt thou have length of days.
Have mercy, Lord.

6. Kill thou not out of evil will,
Nor hate, nor render ill for ill;
Be patient and of gentle mood,
And to thy foe do thou good.
Have mercy, Lord.

7. Be faithful to thy marriage vows,
Thy heart give only to thy spouse;
Keep thy life pure, and lest thou sin
Keep thyself with discipline.
Have mercy, Lord.

8. Steal not; oppressive acts abhor;
Nor wring their life-blood from the poor;
But open wide thy loving hand
To all the poor in the land.
Have mercy, Lord.

9. Bear not false witness, nor belie
Thy neighbor by foul calumny;
Defend his innocence from blame,
With charity hide his shame.
Have mercy, Lord.

10. Thy neighbor's wife desire thou not,
His house, nor aught that he hath got;
But wish that his such good may be
As thy heart doth wish for thee.
Have mercy, Lord.

11. God these commandments gave, therein
To show thee, son of man, thy sin,
And make thee also well perceive
How man for God ought to live.
Have merc, Lord.

12. Help us, Lord Jesus Christ, for we
A Mediator have in thee;
Without thy help our works so vain
Merit naught but endless pain.
Have mercy, Lord.


1. Diess sind die heil'gen zehn Gebot',
Die uns gab unser Herre Gott
Durch Mosen, seinen Diener treu,
Hoch auf dem Berg Sinai.
Kyrioleis!

2. Ich bin allein dein Gott der Herr,
Kein' Goetter sollst du haben mehr,
Du sollt mir ganz vertrauen dich,
Von Herzengrund lieben mich.
Kyrioleis!

3. Du sollt nicht brauchen zu Unehr'n
Den Namen Gottes, deines Herrn;
Du sollt nicht preisen recht noch gut,
Ohn' was Gott selbst red't und thut.
Kyrioleis!

4. Du sollt heil'gen den siebent' Tag,
Dass du und dein Haus ruhen mag,
Du sollt von dei'm Thun lassen ab,
Das Gott sein Werk in dir hab'.
Kyrioleis!

5. Du sollt ehr'n und gehorsam sein
Dem Vater und der Mutter dein,
Und wo dein Hand ihn'n dienen kann,
So wirst du lang's Leben han.
Kyrioleis!

6. Du sollt nicht toedten zorniglich,
Nicht hassen noch selbst raechen dich,
Geduld haben und sanften Muth
Und auch dem Feind thun das Gut'.
Kyrioleis!

7. Dein' Eh' sollt du bewahren rein,
Dass auch dein Herz kein andere mein',
Und halten keusch das Leben dein
Mit Zucht und Maessigkeit fein.
Kyrioleis!

8. Du sollt nicht stehlen Geld noch Gut,
Nicht wuchern Jemands Schweiss und Blut;
Du solt aufthun dein' milde Hand
Den Armen in deinem Land.
Kyrioleis!

9. Du sollt kein falscher Zeuge sein,
Nicht luegen auf den Naechsten dein,
Sein' Unschuld sollt auch retten du
Und seine Schand' decken zu.
Kyrioleis!

10. Du sollt dein's Naechsten Weib und Haus
Begehren nicht, noch etwas d'raus,
Du sollt ihm wuenschen alles Gut',
Wie dir dein Herz selber thut.
Kyrioleis!

11. Die Gebot, all' uns geben sind,
Dass du dein Suend', o Menschenkind,
Erkennen sollt, und lernen wohl,
Wie man fuer Gott leben soll.
Kyrioleis!

12. Das helf' uns der Herr Jesus Christ,
Der unser Mittler worden ist:
Es ist mit unserm Thun verlor'n,
Verdienen doch eitel Zorn.
Kyrioleis!


2. "Mensch willtu leben seliglich" (Man, if you will live blessedly) (NLGB 493), Luther's second hymn on the 10 Commandments; not set by Bach.

3. "O Mensch willtu vor Gott bestahn" (O Man, will thou before God stand) (NLGB 494), not set by Bach.

William Hoffman wrote (June 22, 2011):
Codes for chorales:

"Wer nur den lieben Gott läßt walten," http://bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale052-Eng3.htm

"O Gott, du frommer Gott" http://bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale013-Eng3.htm
Melody uses: BCW, http://bach-cantatas.com/CM/O-Gott-du-frommer-Gott.htm

"Ach Herr, mich armen Sünder" http://bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale069-Eng3.htm

"Ich ruf zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ" http://bach-cantatas.com/Texts/BWV177-Eng3.htm

"Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott" http://bach-cantatas.com/Texts/BWV80-Eng8.htm (English Translations by Paul H. Farseth)

"Nun lob', mein' Seel', den Herren" http://bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale136-Eng3.htm

 

Early Trinity Time Chorales

William Hoffman wrote (June 11, 2014):
When Bach took up his new, second cycle of church year cantatas, he showcased well-known and appropriate chorales, beginning with the second half of the church year, the omnes tempore Sundays of Trinity Time. These involve the teachings of the church through the Catechism and Communion as well as the timeless iniital themes of Trinity, Justification, and Christian Life & Conduct with its emphasis on communion and penitential Psalms. The authorized chorales for each church year service are found in Bach’s hymnbook, Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch (NLGB), of 1682 by cantor Gottfried Vopelius.

In choosing the initial chorales to be presented systematically during the initial Trinity Time, Bach was motivated by other factors. While the hymns are appropriate for Early Trinity Time, and often later trinity Time, Bach had the opportunity the explore omne tempore hymns listed but lacking in treatment in his first systematic account of the organ chorale preludes for the church year, the Weimar Orgelbüchlein (OB) Collection, BWV 599-644, as well as his earlier settings of hymn melodies as teaching materials published posthumously by his students and their followers in the collections: the Kirnberger Chorales (KC), BWV 690-713; the Miscellaneous Chorale Preludes (MC), BWV 714-64, etc.; and the Neumeister Chorale (NC), Collection, BWV 1090-1120.

Bach's incomplete Orgelbüchlein manuscript contains music for 46 organ chorales, of a total of 164 incipits for the church year listed by Bach. Interestingly, it has settings in the initial de tempore (Nos. 1-60) section for 26 of the first 27 chorales, Advent to Passiontide, omits 13 of the next 26 (Nos. 27 to 51), Easter through Pentecost, but has none of the nine succeeding Trinity Time and festival designated chorales. In the omnes tempore section, Nos. 61-164, only 10 chorales are set (designated BWV 635-644) of the more than 100 systematically listed by theme.

Now the Leipzig music director and St. Thomas church cantor, Bach in June 1724, after an initial church year cycle, turned to omnes tempore chorales found in the NLGB. Of the first six chorale cantatas composed and presented on the first four Sundays after Trinity and the festivals of John the Baptist (June 24) and Visitation (July 2), all six popular chorale settings are found in the NLGB and four are listed but not set in the Orgelbüchlein. 1st Sunday after Trinity; Johann Rist’s iconic “O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort” (O Eternity, thou word of thunder), Cantata BWV 20, NLGB No. 394, “Last Days, Resurrection of the Dead, Eternal Life” (Nos. 390-396); no OB listing or setting, with Rist’s austere description as “A Serious Consideration of Endless Eternity.” 2nd Sunday after Trinity; Martin Luther’s “Ach Gott, vom Himmel sieh darein” (Ah God, look down from heaven, Psalm 12 hymn), Cantata BWV 2; NLGB No. 247; “Persecution & Tribulation” (Nos. 275-304): A. The Church Militant (Psalm Hymns); OB No. 114 (Psalm Hymns) but not set; described as the psalm that “laments that mankind turns away from God and is led astray into godless living by heretical teachings.” John the Baptist Feast June 24, Martin Luther’s Baptismal hymn, “Christ, unser Herr, zum Jordan kam” (Christ our Lord came to the Jordan), Cantata BWV 7 (John Baptist), NLGB No. 176) “Catechism” (Nos. 170-189, Holy Baptism); OB No. 66 (Holy Baptism) but not set; it celebrates the most important single feast day of the church: the Nativity of John the Baptist and his father, Zachariah’s prophecy of redemption and deliverance from evil,

3rd Sunday after Trinity, “Ach Herr, mich armen Sünder” (Ah Lord, poor sinner that I am), melody “Herzlich tut, mich verlangen”; Cantata BWV 127; NLGB No 246; “Christian Life & Conduct” (Psalms): “Penitence and Amendment,” Nos. 234-274); OB 73 “(Confession, Penitence & Justification) but not set; it is a free paraphrase of repentant Psalm 6, Domine, ne in fuore (O Lord, rebuke me not in thine anger, KJV), set to the popular Passion melody, “O sacred head now wounded.

Feast of the Visitation of Mary (July 2); Meine Seele erhebt den Herrn (My soul praises the Lord, German Magnificat), Cantata BWV 10; NLGB No. 153, “Visitation” (Nos. 153-157); OB No. 56 (Visitation) but not set.

4th Sunday after Trinity, “Ich ruf zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ” (I call to you, Lord Jesus Christ), Cantata BWV 177, NLGB No. 235, “Christian Life and Conduct” etc. (Nos. 234-274); OB 91 and set as BWV 639. In general in Bach’s time congregations and organists were more familiar with the de tempore chorales for Christmas and Easter events in the life of Jesus Christ, the omnes tempore usually being less familiar. The exception were the pietists with their interest in personal and devotional sacred songs. Most of the new chorales, while still based popular melodies, often dealt with the omnes tempore themes that orthodox Lutheran pastors sought to teach and sermonize on, particularly in Leipzig where Bach could enjoy the best of both worlds, so to speak. The wealth of established omnes tempore chorales enabled Bach to compose chorale cantatas and the pastors to sermonize on the chorale.

While the Trinity Time hymns rarely spoke directly to the Sunday Gospel lessons, the chosen themes often related to the lessons. They served as the theological, liturgical, and catechismal underpinnings of the word of God through the service of the sermon and the cantata as the musical version of the sermon. During Trinity Time, there was a great deal of flexibility in the use of hymns although many traditions were being developed, such as the chorale and emblematic sermons addressing a series of themes and characteristics pastors and composers for the hymn of the day (de tempore) and the pulpit and communion hymns. At the same time there were cyclical themes appropriate for the early and late Trinity Time as well as the later Epiphany Time Sundays and Pre-Lenten “gesimae” Sundays. For example, "Ich ruf zu dir Herr Jesu Christ" (I call to you, Lord Jesus Christ), NLGB No. 235, general “Christian Life and Conduct,” was one of the most ubiquitous Trinity Time chorales. The Johann Agricola ?1529 five-stanza chorale is assigned in the NLGB as the Hymn of the Day for the Second, 19th and 21st Sundays after Trinity and as a communion hymn on the Sundays after Trinity +5, +6, +8, and +22. Bach chose "Ich ruft zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ" as the subject of Chorale Cantata BWV 177 (BCW Discussion June 22), for the Fourth Sunday after Trinity, presented in 1732, to fill that service gap in Cycle 2. For 25 Sundays in Trinity Time 1724, Bach chose eclectic chorales that reflected the thematic teachings. The most prominent categories involved six chorales of “Penitence and Amendment (Confession, Penitence & Justification)”; five chorales under the heading ”In time of trouble” (Christian Life & Conduct; Praise & Thanks; Cross, Persecution & Challenge); as well as five from “Persecution and Tribulation” with the two subheadings “The Church Militant (Psalm Hymns)” and “In time of War” (Word of God& Christian Church); three under the general heading “Life Eternal” where chorale Cantata 20, “O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort,” is listed under “Eternal Life”; and two in “Judgment; Death and the Grave (/Dying, Death & Eternity).” There is one chorale each under the omnes tempore headings Christian Life and Experience (Hope) and “Evening Hymn.” One chorale Cantata BWV 96, “Herr Christ, der einge Gottes-Sohn,” is a de tempore Advent chorale. Here are the chorales, as found from the beginning to the end of the NLGB church year, and categorized with the listing from the OB (Orgelbüchlein) organ chorale preludes

Chorale ‘Ach Herr, mich armen Sünder’

Choral Cantata 135 on Cyriacus Schneegass’ Hymn on Psalm vi, “Ach Herr, mich armen Sünder,” first published in his Geistliche Lieder und Psalmen (Erfurt, 1597), says Charles Sanford Terry in The Hymns and Hymn Melodies of the Cantatas and Motetts (Cambridge University Press, 1915-1921). 3 vols. Vol. 2;
http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/bach-bachs-chorals-vol-2-the-hymns-and-hymn-melodies-of-the-cantatas-and-motetts.

“The melody, “Herzlich thut mich verlangen,” which Bach uses in the first and last movements of the Cantata, first occurs, as a secular song, in Hans Leo Hassler’s Lustgarten Neuer Teutscher Gesang (Nürnberg, 1601). In 1613 it was attached to Christoph Knoll’s (1563-1650) “Herzlich-thut mich verlangen,” and in 1656 to Paul Gerhardt’s “O Haupt voll Blut.” Christopher Demantius, in his Threnodiae (Freiberg, 1620), set it to Schneegass’ “Ach Herr, mich armen Sünder,” and the Hymn is still generally sung to it. The melody occurs also in Cantatas 25, 135, 153, 159, 161; in the “St Matthew Passion,” Nos. 21, 23, 53, 63, 72; and in the “Christmas Oratorio,” Nos. 5, 64. There are other harmonisations of the tune in the Choralgesange, Nos. 157, 158. For the B flat which Bach substitutes for D at the eleventh note in the second part of the tune, and for the C natural in place of G at the penultimate note, there is early authority (1679 and 1694 respectively). Organ Works, N. xviii. 53.” Preferred associated melody, Hans Leo Hassler (1601), “Befiehl du deine Wege I” (Zahn 5385a) or with text “Herlich tut mich verlangen,” see Chorale Melodies used in Bach's Vocal Works: BCW
http://www.bach-cantatas.com/CM/Befiehl-du-deine-Wege.htm; Hassler BCW Short Biography, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Lib/Hassler.htm. Source: secular, love song “Mein G’müt ist mir verwirret von einer Jungfrau zart” [“A young girl/woman (virgin) has tangled up all my thoughts and feelings”]. The settings are found under various initial texts with similar melody: For this complex of texts and melodies connected with:

Befiehl du deine Wege, by Paul Gerhardt (1653)
Ach Herr, mich armen Sünder, by Cyriakus Schneegaß (1597), based on Psalm 6 Herzlich tut mich verlangen, by Christoph Knoll (1611)
Ihr Christen, auserkoren, by Georg Werner (1648)
O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden, by Paul Gerhardt (1656)
Wie soll ich dich empfangen, by Paul Gerhardt (1653)
Lobet Gott, unsern Herren, by Author?

Plain chorale settings under the various texts, BWV 153/5; 161/6; 244/15, 17, 44, 54, 62; 248/5; extended chorale 248/64; SA chorale aria 159/2; untexted settings, chorale chorus melody BWV 25/1, 127/1, 161/1; plain chorales 270-271; and organ chorale preludes 727 (Misc.), 742 (Neumeister) title Ach Herr, mich armen Sünder. Chorale listed in Orgelbüchlein No. 73, (“Confession, Penitence & Justification”) but not set. In addition to the paraphrase of penitential Psalm 6 in Cantata 135, “Ach Herr, mich armen Sünder” for the 3rd Sunday after Trinity, Bach set chorale Cantata BWV 115, “Mache dich, mein Geist bereit” (Johann J. Crüger 1640 (6 stanzas; and melody “Straf mich nicht in deinem Zorn,” another paraphrase of Psalm 6 (NLGB No. 244), for the 22nd Sunday after Trinity 1724. Bach also set under the category Psalms “Penitence & Amendment” five Trinity Time chorale Cantatas: Cantata 38, “Aus tiefer Not schrei ich zu dir (Trinity +21, Psalm 130, NLGB No. 270 ); Cantata 33, “Allein zu dir, herr Jesu Christ (Trinity+13, Catechism, NLGB No. 178); Cantata 113, “Herr Jesu Christ, du höchstes Gut” (Trinity +11, Catechism, NLGB No. 181); Cantata 5, “Wo soll ich fliehen hin,” Trinity +19, Catechism, NLGB No. 182), and Cantata 9, “Es ist das Heil uns kommen her” (Trinity +6, Justification, NLGB No. 230). All five chorales were listed in the Weimar Orgelbüchlein (Nos. 67, 70, 72, 74, 77) but not set as organ chorale preludes in that collection. [Musical Context of Bach Cantatas, Motets & Chorales for 3rd Sunday after Trinity, BCW
http://www.bach-cantatas.com/LCY/M&C-Trinity3.htm Trinity +3 & 4 Chorales William Hoffman wrote (June 22, 2011)]

3rd & 4th Sundays after Trinity: Themes & Chorales

Bach's observance of the closely related themes for Third and Fourth Sundays after Trinity in Leipzig shows his continued consistency in the creation of early Trinity Time service cantatas and appropriate plain as well as related organ chorale settings. Responding to similar pairings of themes for these two Sundays with the overall concept of Trust in God through humility and mercy, the didactic chorales build on the principals in the first two Sundays after Trinity, emphasizing God's love and grace for all. Key Trinity Time chorales are used interchangeably, while Bach begins introducing positive, familiar Psalm and Communion Hymns.

Bach uses four well-known trinity Time chorales in the five surviving cantatas for the Third Sunday after Trinity: Neumark's "Wer nur den lieben Gott läßt walten" (BWV 21/9), and Schneegaß’s "AchHerr, mich armen Sünder" with the Passion chorale melody (Chorale Cantata BWV 135). Bach's cantatas continually adhere to the Gospel teachings as emphasized in the sermons. For the Third Sunday after Trinity, Bach's two extant cantatas, BWV 21 and BWV 135, reflect the Epistle, 1 Peter 5: 6-11 (God's humble flock), especially in verse 7: "Cast all your cares upon Him, for he cares for you," especially Cantata BWV 21 with a direct quotation. Cantata 135 makes reference to the Epistle in the tenor aria (Mvt. 3) on the reflection that the Lord comforts us and will strike down our enemies (Mvt. 5 bass aria). The Gospel (Luke 15:1-10 touches on the Good Shepherd theme first found in Second Sunday after Easter (Misericordias Domini) and the Lost Sheep in the Third Day of Pentecost (Whit Tuesday), emphasizing the treasure found in the Parable of the lost sheep and the lost coin.

Bach also uses three popular early Trinity Time Psalm Chorales found in the NLGB, “Christian Life and Conduct: David Psalms”: Psalm 23, both settings of "Der Herr ist mein getreuer Hirt" (The Lord is my Faithful Shepherd), Nos. 251, 252, especially per omnes versus chorale Cantata BWV 112 for the 2nd Sunday after Easter (Misericordias Domini), 1731; Psalm 46, Luther's "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott" (A Mighty Fortress is our God), No. 255, especially chorale Cantata 80 for the Reformation c.1730; and Psalm 103, Cyriakus Schneegaß' "Nun lob', mein' Seel', den Herren" (Now praise, my soul, the Lord), No. 170 Catechism hymn, especially in the John the Baptist Cantata 167 and the Motets BWB 225/2, and 231=BWV 28/2. Further, Bach sets three well-known NLGB Trinity Time Communion Hymns: Heermann's "Wo soll ich fliehen hin"(Where should I fly from here), No. 182, Catechism, especially in chorale Cantata 5 for the 19th Sunday after Trinity; Hubert's "Allein zu dir Herr Jesus Christ" (On you alone, Lord Jesus Christ), No. 178 Catechism, especially chorale Cantata 33 for the13th Sunday after Trinity; and Luther's "Dies sind die heilige Zehn Gebot" (These are the holy 10 Commandments), No. 170, Catechism, in plain chorale BWV 298 for the 13th Sunday after Trinity).

During the pre-Cantata Cycle 3 Trinity Time of 1725, a libretto book shows that for the Third Sunday after Trinity, June 17, the entire chorale is printed as a pure-hymn cantata but is not related to Cantata BWV 177. It is also listed as the NLGB Hymn of the Day for the Third Sunday After Epiphany <omne tempore>ordinary time, as well as for Septuagesimae and Sexagesimae Sundays before Lent. The melody of Johann Agricola's 1529 five-verse hymn appears as a chorale prelude in the Orgelbüchelin (No. 91), BWV 639, in the fifth listing of 26 after the Catechism, under the heading "Christian Life and Conduct." Its variant setting is BWV Anh.II 73. For Leipzig Cycle 2 in 1724, Bach set two chorale Cantatas, BWV 135, "Ach Herr, mich armen Sünder," for the Third Sunday after Trinity, June 25, and a week later, BWV 10, "Meine Seele erhebt den Herren" (German Magnificat) for the Feast of the Visitation, which fell coincidentally on the Fourth Sunday after Trinity, July 2 (BCW Discussion June 15). Psalm Hymn Harmonizations

Of the five Psalm Hymns associated with early Trinity Time in the 1682 Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch three (Psalms 23, 46, and 103) were set by Bach:

NLGB 251, 252. Two settings of Psalm 23 (The Lord Our Shepherd) are used in Bach cantatas for the Second Sunday after Easter (Misericordias Domini) but are found in the Trinity Time omne tempore section, both using the German Mass Gloria melody, "Allein Gott in der Höh' sei Ehr'" (To God alone on high be glory), of Nickolaus Decius (1522). Neither communion hymn is designated for a particular service in the church year but often are sung during omne tempore services, such as the Third Sunday in Trinity where the Gospel lesson relates to lost sheep. NLGB No. 251, "Der Herr ist mein getreuer Hirt, hält mir," (The Lord is my faithful shepherd, he hold me) Wolfgang Meusel, (1530), 5 stanzas, Chorale Cantata BWV 112; and NLGB No. 252, "Der Herr ist mein getreuer Hirt, dem ich" (The Lord is my faithful shepherd, in whom I) Cornelius Becker (1598), 3 stanzas, opening chorale fantasia, BWV104/6(S.1), and soprano aria, BWV 85/3(S.1). BCW:
www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale094-Eng3.htm

NLGB 253. Sebald Heyden’s "Wer in dem Schutz des Höchestein ist," Psalm 41 no Bach setting. NLGB 255. Luther's popular Reformation hymn, "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott" (A Mighty Fortress is our God) (4 stanzas) is a setting of Psalm 46, God is with us [Emmanuel]. In the NLGB 670, it is found under "The Word of God & Christian Church"; Hymn of the Day, Trinity +23; communion hymn, Trinity +27, and for Lent 2+, 3+). Bach's uses are the Chorale Cantata BWV 80 (Reformation, 1730), as well as plain chorale settings, BWV 302=247/112 (St. Mark Passion, S.4), BWV 303=?80a/6 (Trinity 3 1715, S.2)=?80b/1 (1723, S.1), BWV 80/8 (S.4). One miscellaneous Chorale Prelude exists, BWV 720 while the hymn incipit listed in the Orgelbüchelin (No. 116, "Psalm Hymn," is not set).
www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/BWV80-Eng8.htm.
NLGB. 260. Cornelius Becker’s "Wer sich des Höchestein Schirm vertraut," Psalm 41, no Bach setting.
NLGB 261, "Nun lob', mein' Seel', den Herren" (Now praise, my soul, the Lord), Johann Gramman 1525, 5 stanzas is a setting of Psalm 103, Love of God, with the Johann Kugelmann 1540 melody. Bach uses (all plain chorales except BWV 51/4) are: BWV 389 in C Major (Praise & Thanksgiving, Hänssler v. 83), BWV 390 in C Major (Psalm chorale, Hänssler, v.82); Cantatas BWV 17/7 (Trinity +14, S.3), BWV 29/8 in D w/3 tps., timp.; Council, S.1), 51/4 (S. aria, Trinity +15, S.5), BWV 167 (Johns Day, S.5); motet chorales, Cantata BWV 28/2(Sunday after Christmas)=Motet BWV 231=BWV Anh. 160/2 (S.5), 225/2 (S.3). BCW:
www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale136-Eng3.htm.

III. Service Chorales, Third Sunday after Trinity (NLGB )

HYMN OF DAY (de tempore) Trinity +3

"Ich ruf zu dir Herr Jesu Christ," see Chorales in Cantatas for Third & Fourth Sundays Trinity, Cantata BWV 185. Text, BCW
www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/BWV177-Eng3.htm.

For the CHORALES for Pulpit and Communion Hymns in the NLGB, Bach set Penitential Psalm 51 hymns, a Communion hymn and a Catechism hymn:

*"Erbarm dich mein, O Herre Gott" (Be merciful to me, O Lord God), Erhardt Hegenwalt 1524 5 stanzas, melody Johann Walter Gesangbuch 1521 (NLGB 256 for use with the Third, 11th, 14th and 22nd Sundays after Trinity), setting of Psalm 51, Prayer for Forgiveness (penitence). Bach's uses: plain chorale in BWV 305 in C Major, miscellaneous organ chorale prelude BWV 721; listed in the Orgelbüchelin omne tempore Catechism (No. 68, Confession) but not set. Bach also adapted Pergolesi's <Stabat Mater> (1736) to a German text of Psalm 51 between 1745-47 for Trinity Sunday +11, "Tilge, Höchester, meine Sünden" (Cancel, Highest, my sins), BWV 1083. BCW Discussion, Week of June 24, 2012 *"O Herre Gott begnade mich" (O Lord God, pardon me), NLGB 257, Tr.+8, 11+, 13+, 19+, is the Bishop Coverdale setting of Psalm 51 (Prayer for Forgiveness) 5 stanzas; psalm tune, Matthäus Greitter 1525 (Calvin published in 1539). Greitter, cf Trinity +2, "Es wolle Gott uns gnädig sein" 1524 (NLGB 258). English translation:
http://matthaeusglyptes.blogspot.com/2009_04_01_archive.htm, scroll down to "O Herre Gott." No Bach use extant.
*"Wo soll ich fliehen hin"(Where should I fly from here), Johann Heerman 1630 (11 stanzas). NLGB 182 (Communion, Trinity Sunday +3,) Chorale Cantata BWV 5 (Trinity +19), Cantata BWV 89/6 (S.7, "Mir mangelt zwar sehr viel" [I do indeed lack many things] Trinity +22), BWV 136/6 (S. 9, "Dein Blut, der edle Saft, / hat solche Stärk und Kraft" [your blood, the noble liquid, /has such strength and might] T+8), BWV 199/6 (S. aria, S.3, "Ich, dein betrübtes Kind, / werf alle meine Sünd" [I, your troubled child, / cast all my sins], Trinity +11. organ chorale preludes BWV 646 (Schubler chorale), miscellaneous BWV 694; listed in the Orgelbüchelin omne tempore Catechism (No. 74, Confession) but not set. J. H. Schein 1627 melody originally associated with text "Auf meinen lieben Gott" (In my beloved God) before 1603 (NLGB 299, “Cross, Persecution & Challenge). BCW:
http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale021-Eng3.htm.
*"Allein zu dir Herr Jesus Christ" (On you alone, Lord Jesus Christ), Conrad Hubert 1540 (4 stanzas), melody anonymous 1540. NLGB 178, Catechism, Hymn of the Day, Third Sunday After Epiphany; Trinity +11, 21, 22, 24. Bach's uses: Chorale Cantata BWV 33 (33/6 plain chorale, S.4, "Ehr sei Gott in dem höchsten Thron" [Honour be to God on his highest throne, Francis Browne]; plain chorale BWV 261 in D-B Major; Neumeister organ chorale prelude BWV 1100; listed in the Orgelbüchelin omne tempore Catechism (No. 70, Confession) but not set. BCW:
http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale111-Eng3.htm.

Early Trinity Time Chorales

Other hymns also related to Trinity +1 readings, found in NLGB involve seven settings of Psalm 6, and three of non-Psalm settings of Christian Life and Conduct: Musical Context of Bach Cantatas, Motets & Chorales for 1st Sunday after Trinity; BCW
http://www.bach-cantatas.com/LCY/M&C-Trinity1.htm (revised 6/14)

1. "Ach Herr mein Gott, straft mich doch nicht" (NLGB 243), Cornelius Becker, penitential Psalm 6); not set by Bach.
2. "Ach Herr, mich armen Sünder" (Ah Lord, poor sinner that I am), (NLGB 246); text (6 stanzas), Cyriakus Schneegaß (1597), based on Psalm 6; melody, H. Hassler "Befiehl du deine Wege" (Herzlich tut mich verlangen, Passion chorale) 1601; Bach usage: chorale Cantata BWV 135 (Trinity +3). Bach did not set the hymn as Orgelbüchlein Catechism chorale prelude No. 73, "Confession, Penitenance, and Justification" but did set the melody in the possibly very young Bach miscellanous organ chorale prelude BWV 742. 3. "Herr nicht schicke deine Rache" (245), Johann Crüger, Psalm 6, not set by Bach 4. "Herr, straf' mich nicht in deinem Zorn" (O Lord, do not punish me in your anger) /Das bitt ich dich von Herzen," (NLGB 243); text, J. Crüger 1640 (6 stanzas; based on Psalm 6); melody unknown ?1640; Bach uasage: BWV 338 (A-Minor/Major); Listed as Psalm hymn (Hänssler complete Bach edition (No. 82), A Book of Chorale settings, No. 5, CD 92.082 (1999). 4a. "Straf mich nicht in deinem Zorn/großer Gott, verschone." (Do not rebuke me in your anger, Ps. 6:1) Text 1, J. G. Albinus (7 stanzas, 1676; based on Psalm 6), melody anonymous 1681; not set by Bach
4b. Listed in NLGB 243 as "Ach Herr mein Gott, straf mich doch nicht" and as "Herr, straf' mich nicht in deinem Zorn."
4c. Text 2: "Mache dich, mein Geist, bereit," J. B. Freystein (1695); Bach usage in chorale Cantata BWV 115/1(S.1),6(S.10( (Trinity +22).

Other composers who have set "Herr, straf' mich nicht in deinem Zorn" include: Schütz, Telemann and Knüpfer. 5. "Ich ruf zu dir Herr Jesus Christ" (I call to you, Lord Jesus Christ) (NLGB 235, Christian Life& Conduct); text, J. Agricola by 1530 (5 stanzas), melody, J. Klug GB 1535; Bach's usages: Chorale Cantata BWV 1771/5 (Trinity +4); Cantata 185/6 (S.1) and 185/1 (melody in trumpet & oboe) (Trinity +4). Plain chorale BWV 1124, "Christian Life and Expectation" (Hänssler complete Bach edition (No. 83), A Book of Chorale settings, No. 6, CD 92.083, 1999). Stiller: This hymn "is specifically assigned to this Sunday in the Leipzig and Dresden hymnals" (P. 242) and in Leipzig for the omne tempore Third Sunday After Epiphany (p. 238).
6. "Mit dank wir sollen loben" (NLGB 248), Cornelius Becker, Psalm 8, not set by Bach
7. "In allen meinen Taten" (In all my deeds) (NLGB 239, Christian Life & Conduct), text Paul Flemming 1642 (9 stanzas); Bach set the text to the familiar Passion melody "O Welt, ich muß dich lassen" (O world, I must leave thee), based on H. Isaac 1490 melody, "Innsbruck, ich muß dich lassen." Bach works: Cantata BWV 13/6 (Epiphany +2), BWV 44/7 (Easter +6), the pure-hymn Chorale Cantata BWV 97, not assigned to a specific service. The associated melody of Johann Quirsfeld 1679 is found in the NLGB and was used as the opening hymn to church weddings, plain chorale BWV 367 in C Major ("Trust in God, Cross and Consolation," Hänssler complete Bach edition (No. 85), A Book of Chorale settings, No. 8, CD 92.085 (1999). 8. "Nun danket alle Gott" (Now thank we all our God) (NLGB 238, Christian Life & Conduct). Hymn after sermon; text, Marin Rinckart 1636 (3 verses); melody, J. Crüger 1647. Stiller: hymn with main service festival Te Deum (p. 81f), after wedding service benediction (BWV 252 in G Major (S.1), p. 94, Hänssler V.83, "Praise & Thanks"), New Year's Day (chorale Cantata BWV 192 in G Major), and Reformation Festival (Cantata BWV 79/3 (S.1) plain chorale in G Major). Other Bach uses: BWV 386 in G Major, same as BWV Anh. 164/2 (S.3, transposed to A Major), (Hänssler V.83, "Praise& Thanks"); and organ chorale prelude BWV 657 (Great 18).

Selected Bibliography

BCW (Paul Gerhardt, Bach uses 22 hymns):
www.bach-cantatas.com/Lib/Gerhardt.htm.
Häfner, Klaus. "Der Picander Jahrgang," <Bach Jahrbuch> 61 (1975): 107.
Stiller, Gunther. <JSB& Liturgical Life in Leipzig>, Concordia, 1984.
Stinson, Russell. <Bach: The Orgelüchlein>, Oxford University Press, 1999.
Williams, Peter. <The Organ Music of JSB> (Second Edition), Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Wolff, Christoph. "The Neumeister Collection of Chorale Preludes from the Bach Circle," in < Bach: Essays on His Life and Music>, Harvard University Press, 1991.
Vopelius, Gottfried, <Das Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch> (1682); glossary, Jürgen Grimm, Berlin: Merseburger, 1969. ML 3168 G75

 

Musical Context of Bach Cantatas: Table of Motets & Chorales for Events in the Lutheran Church Year

Lutheran Church Year: Main Page and Explanation | LCY - Event Table | LCY 2000-2005 | LCY 2006-2010 | LCY 2011-2015
Sundays & Holidays in the Lifetime of J.S. Bach | Performance Dates of Bach’s Vocal Works
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Last update: ýNovember 8, 2014 ý20:04:04