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Eschatological Chorales, Coming in Judgement

Eschatological Chorales, Coming in Judgement

William Hoffman wrote (December 24, 2017):
Bach’s eschatological chorales embrace the three-fold advent meaning of Christmas in Lutheran salvation history, the last being Jesus Christ’s coming at end time in judgement; the first being his coming through incarnation born on earth in human flesh as the Son of Man, while the second is his perpetual, spiritual indwelling in the believer’s heart (inhabitatio) in mystic unity (unio mystica) with the believer. The last advent coming is the Final Judgement, also called Christ’s Second or Last Coming, the last coming signifying the victory of good over evil, a king coming in glory and judgement of mankind.1

Bach’s eschatological chorales are found mostly in the 1682 Das neu Leipziger Gesangbuch (NLGB) under the rubric, “Death & Dying” (nos. 324-389), which is followed by “Last Days, Resurrection of the Dead, & Eternal Life” (nos. 390 to 396). They are found in the Schemelli Gesangbuch as "Von Jüngsten Gericht und ewigen Leben" (Eternal Judgement & Eternal Life, nos. 743-762) and are listed in the Weimar Orgelbüchlein (Ob.) Appendix (Justification) nos. 157-164, only one of which (no. 159), Bach set as a brief chorale, BWV 644 “Ach wie nichtig, ach wie flüchtig.” Bach later set the remaining Ob numbers variously as four chorale Cantatas, BWV 26, “Ach wie nichtig, ach wie flüchtig”; BWV 137, “Lobe den Herrn den Mächtigen König” (melody, not in NLGB); BWV 180, “Schmücke dich, O liebe Seele”; and BWV 20, “O Ewigkeit, do Donnerwort”; as well as plain chorales and organ chorale preludes. “It is remarkable that for his concluding section [Orgelbüchlein] Bach completely disregards [Gotha capellmeister Christian Friedrich] Witt’s corresponding group,” says Charles S. Terry.2 “In no other part of the Orgelbüchlein is his concentration upon a plan of his own more apparent.”

Two Flittner Jesus Songs

Bach, says Terry, “begins (Ob. No. 157) with Johann Flittner’s ‘Jesus-Lied’ [Jesu, meines Herzens Freud) whose closing lines, undoubtedly, were particularly before him: ‘When Death calls me, O sustain me, / Thou Consoler, / Jesu, Comforter.’ It is followed by another of Flittner’s hymns (No. 158), which its author inscribed Omnia si perdam, Jesum servare studebo (Though I lose all, yet will I cling to Jesus).3 Its seven stanzas end with the refrain:” "Meinen Jesum lass ich nicht" (I shall not leave my Jesus). “Jesu, meines Herzens Freud” (Jesus, my heart’s joy) is a hymn of Last Judgement and Eternal Life, text by Flittner (1618-1678), having five 7-line irregular stanzas with refrains and is a translation of Salve cordis gaudium (Hail the Joy) to the associated melody in a minor mode (Zahn 4797, 4798d) of sacred songwriter Johann Rudolph Ahle, published in 1661 in Flitner’s “Amor meus Jesus: Salve cordis gaudium (Fischer-Tümpel iv: 542). Ahle also composed “Es ist genug” (It is enough.” “Jesu, meines Herzens Freud” is not found in the NLGB but is listed in the Orgelbüchlein, No. 157 (from Gotha-Witt Hymnbook No. 336), and in the Schemelli Songbook as No. 696, under the rubric, “Von der Liebe und Verlangen nach Jesu” (Love and longing for Jesus).

Four chorale verse settings of “Jesu, meines Herzens Freud” are found in the apocryphal St. Luke Passion, BWV 246, as well as Bach’s plain chorale setting, BWV 361 (http://www.bach-chorales.com/BWV0361.htm), and in the Schemelli Songbook, BWV 473 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f4VPMqu8Zew), under the rubric “Von der Liebe und Verlangen nach Jesu” (Love & longiong for Jesus). The St. Luke Passion chorale settings are Nos. No. 9 and 11 to the Ahle melody, as well as Nos. 62 and 66 — using melody "Jesu, Leiden, Pein und Tod” — set to stanzas 3, 4, 5, and 2 respectively.

“Jesu, meines Herzens Freud” is known in English as “King of Glory, King of Peace” (https://songselect.ccli.com/Songs/878956/king-of-glory-king-of-peace-salve-cordis-gaudium).

“Ach, was soll ich Sunder machen” (Ah, what shall I do in sin?), is Filttner's best-known song in seven six-line stanzas to the associated melody which is based on a secular melody by Enoch Gläsner (Zahn 3573b) of 1653.4 Appropriate for Lent, it was published in Leipzig Vorrath (1673). It is found in the NLGB as no 389, at the end of the section, “Death & Dying,” followed by “Last Days, Resurrection of the Dead, Eternal Life” (nos. 390-402). In the Orgelbüchlein it is No. 157, from the Gotha-Witt Hymnbook No. 336.

Bach set it as a plain chorale, BWV 259 (http://www.bach-chorales.com/BWV0259.htm, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ibXMdTgwndM), and as a chorale partita with 10 variations, BWV 770 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YyRnVBjWoK8, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y0ow_Y9JUic). It “is an extremely early work, possibly even dating from the Arnstadt period,” says Peter Williams. In English, it is known as “What shall I a sinner do,” of Catherine Winkworth (https://hymnary.org/text/what_shall_i_a_sinner_do).

Hymns on Fleeting Life

Then come two reflective hymns upon the transitoriness of human life (Nos. 159, 160), says Terry (Ibid.) “Ach wie nichtig, ach wie flüchtig” (Ah how fleeting, ah how insubstantial) is the pietist Michael Franck (1609-1667) 13 six-line stanza hymn (EKG 327), published in Die Eitelkeit, Falschheit und Unbeständigkeit der Welt“ (Vanity, Falsehood and Transitoriness of the World“), Coburg, 1652, and set to his associated melody (Zahn: 1887b).5 Johann Crüger made modifications of the melody for his Praxis pietatis melica, 10th edition (Berlin, 1661). The hymn is found in the NLGB of 1682 as No. 371, “Death & Dying,” in the Orgelbüchlein, Appendix (Justification), No. 159, and set as a brief chorale prelude, BWV 644 “Ach wie nichtig, ach wie flüchtig” (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S7vkHtwWMAU). Bach also set the hymn as a chorale cantata, BWV 26, for Late Trinity Time (the 24th Sunday) in 1724 (http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV26-D5.htm). This musical sermon is a patterned, pictorial, concise and bleak-texted but musically joyous chorale cantata, lasting a quarter hour (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W-zMNSQ9xRs). It “is a stupendous musical confectionary illustrating the brevity of human life and the futility of earthly hopes,” says John Eliot Gardiner. Written at the end of the Thirty Years War, "the hymn is a contrast between the unsatisfactory nature of the transient temporal world and the eternal life promised to the Christian believer, a frequent theme in Franck's hymns."

“Ach, was ist doch unser Leben” (Ah, what is yet our life) is the clergyman Johann Rosenthal (1615-90) Death and Dying hymn in 12 four-line stanzas set to the melody, Freu dich sehr, o meine Seele (Zahn 1208).6 It is found in the NLGB as No. 384, “Death & Dying,” and is listed in the Orgelbüchlein as No. 160 (http://www.orgelbuechlein.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/160-Ach-was-ist-doch-unser-Leben.pdf). Bach set the hymn as a Miscellaneous Chorale prelude, BWV 743, but it is of "doubtful authenticity - not accepted by NBA” (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GEByv9FHeoc. It is best known in Zoltán Kodály’s arrangement, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wzz_0pwR8Bo.

Across Gulf of Death

"The mood changes. The last four hymns othe group look across the gulf of death," says Charles S. Terry (Ibid.: 62). “Allenthalben, wo ich gehe” (Everywhere I go) in six 4-line verses is inscribed by its anonymous author as “Longing to be with Jesus” (Verlangen bey Christo zu seyn) and is found in the Orgelbüchlein as No. 161, but not set by Bach, melody (Zahn, No. 1338b, http://www.orgelbuechlein.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/161-Allenthalben-wo-ich-gehe.pdf. It is found in the NLGB as No. 380, Death & Dying.7 It is found in the Wisconsin Synod Lutheran Hymnal as No. 652, Death & Burial Farewell Song; English translation of Stanza 6, Terry (Ibid.): "There’s a land that looms before me, / Where nor death nor sin I’ll see, / Where, ’mid Angels who adore Thee, / I shall pure and glorious be."

“Hast du denn, Jesu, dein Angesicht"

In a dialogue between Jesus and the Soul [unio mystica], the Soul bids farewell to earth: “Hast du denn, Jesu, dein Angesicht" (Have you then, my dearest Jesus, your countenance hidden), the Ahasverus Fritsch (1629-1701) 12 three-extended-line stanzas published in 1668 from the Saubert Gesangbuch (Nürnberg 1676), but not foundmin the NLGB.8 The melody is from Stralsunder Gesangbuch (1665), found in Joachim Neander’s Glaub- und Liebes-Uebung: auffgemuntert durch einfältige Bundeslieder und Dank-Psalmen, and set as "Lobe den Herrn den Mächtigen König" (Praise the Lord, the Almighty King, Zahn 1912a). Bach set the 6th stanza of “Hast du denn, Jesu, dein Angesicht," Jesus: "Richte dich, Liebste" (Comply with my will, my dearest), as a plain chorale (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UlHl0eFsego) closing the dialogue cantata Cantata 57, "Selig ist der Mann" (Blessed is the man), for the Second Day of Christmas (St. Stephen's Day) in 1725.

“Hast du denn, Jesu, dein Angesicht" is listed as No. 162 in the Orgelbüchlein Appendix with the alternate title “Soll ich den, Jesu, mein Leben in Trauern beschliessden” under “life eternal” (Justification, Catechism), but not set, based on the Gotha hymnal. The final stanza says: Christ: "Ah, welcome, my inheritance, given by my father, / inherit the treasures of heaven and everlasting life. / There in place of worldly sorrow you will soar aloft in joy for ever." The melody is set to the associated text in pure-hymn chorale Cantata 137, "Lobe den Herrn den Mächtigen König," in 1725 for the 12th Sunday after Trinity (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HGLJ7dN9BFA). The melody is set as a trio aria BWV 650, “Kommst du nun, Jesu” (Are you coming now, Jesu, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QcJxrbdVTEE).

“Sei gegrusset, Jesu gutig” (I Greet Thee, Merciful Jesus”) is the Christian Keymann (1607-1662) seven six-line stanza hymn of 1663 set to the anonymous melody (Zahn 3889), possibly by Gottfried Vopelius, listed as the last chorale in the NLGB as No. 1102.9 It was first published in Martin Janus’ Passionale Melicum (Görlitz, 1663), says Terry (Ibid.: 294). Two stanzas, improbably by Keymann, were added to his original five in the Gotha Geistlichen Gesang-Buchlein of 1666. It is listed in the Orgelbüchlein as No. 163 but not set, as well as Ob 82, “O Jesu, du edle Gabe” (alternate title, Zahn 3892b) communion hymn (Psalm). Bach set it as an organ chorale partita variations set, BWV 768, as well as four-part setting, BWV 410 (http://www.bach-chorales.com/BWV0410.htm), from the two-part setting in the Schemelli Gesangbuch (No. 293), BWV 499 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uen-oi_TXZ4).

“Schmücke dich, O liebe Seele”

“Schmücke dich, O liebe Seele” (Adorn yourself, O dear soul) is the Johann Franck (1618-1677) eucharistic hymn of consolation in nine 8-line stanza BAR form text (EKG 157) set to the associated melody (Zahn 6923) and published in Johann Crüger's Geistliche Kirchen-Melodien (Berlin 1649).10 It is not found in the NLGB but is listed in the Orgelbüchlein as No. 164 but not set. Bach set it as a Great Leipzig chorale prelude, BWV 654 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yeuy5IT2u_M), and as chorale Cantata 180 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1nZjYDfxvNQ) for the 20th Sunday after Trinity 1724 (http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV180-D4.htm). A Miscellaneous Chorale prelude, BWV 759 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ltKxEv36xc), is now attributed to the Bach student and gallant composer Gottfried August Homilius.

"The hymn has vivid imagery of the bride-bridegroom theme found in the Song of Songs, showing a strong relationship to the 20th Sunday after Trinity," says Anne Leahy.11 The unification of the soul (bride) with Christ (bridegroom), known as the unico mystica, plays a major role in the hymn text and was particularly appealing to Lutherans, says Leahy. Lutheran theologian Heinrich Muller "compares human love with the love between Christ and the soul, showing how Christ's blood is part of the cleansing process," she says. Besides the important themes of mystic union, bride and bridegroom, and the Eucharistic meal, Leahy notes (p. 66) the adornment (Schmück) or dressing of the soul as it prepares for the eternal union or marriage feast with Christ, especially in Bach's Weimar organ chorale setting of "Schmücke dich, o liebe Seele," BWV 654, revised a quarter century later in Leipzig in 1739/42.

There is a close relationship between the opening movement of the chorale Cantata BWV 180, firmly rooted in F and B-Flat Major, and the extended (127 measures), ornamental Great Organ Chorale in E-Flat Major on the hymn "Schmücke dich, o liebe Seele," says Leahy (p. 69). There are striking similarities, particularly based on Bach's musical treatment of the text of Stanza 1 of Franck's hymn, emphasizing the text-music relationships. "The idea of heavenly matters and salvation is not far from the surface in (Cantata) BWV 180," she observes. The dance-like 12/8 meter in four beats to a measure relates to the theme of eternal salvation. The sarabande in ¾ triple-time rhythm in the organ chorale prelude also contains numerous parallel harmonic intervals of thirds and sixths in the florid passages similar to the heavenly unity of the pairs of pastoral recorders and oboes in consonant third and sixths descriptive of love as mystical union, Leahy finds.

"So, sustained and strengthened, the Soul wings its flight Heavenward," says Terry (Ibid.: 62), citing the first stanz (Francis Browne English translation): "Schmücke dich, o liebe Seele, / Laß die dunkle Sündenhöhle, / Komm ans helle Lieht gegangen, / Fange herrlich an zu prangen; / Denn der Herr voll Heil und Gnaden / Läßt dich itzt zu Gaste laden. / Der den Himmel kann verwalten, / Will selbst Herberg in dir halten." (Adorn yourself, O dear soul, / leave the dark den of sins, / come into the clear light, / begin to shine with glory, / for the Lord, full of salvation and mercy / has now invited you as a guest. / He who can reign in heaven / wants himself to make his dwelling in you.

Concludes Terry: "It is impossible to follow the unfolding plan of the Orgelbüchlein without discerning in its author a man whose personality exhibits the sure fabric of moral grandeur. It reveals in the young man of thirty the simple, confiding trust in God that was his thirty-five years later, when the call of Death came to him almost as his failing breath dictated the words: Before Thy throne, my God, I stand, / Myself, my all are in Thy hand."

Ultimate Eternal Life Hymn

The last chorale in Bach's NLGB, No. 1006, is “O Ewigkeit, du Donnerwort” O eternity, you word of thunder), with the heading “A Serious Consideration of Endless Eternity.” It is the Johann Rist (1607-1667) f16 eight-line stanza BAR Form chorale, set to the associated melody (Zahn 5820, EKG 324) of Johann Crüger (1653), also known by the title "Wach auf, mein Geist, erhebe dich," of Johann Schoop (1642).12 It is not listed in the Orgelbüchlein but Bach set it as a chorale Cantata 20 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RaWkWtC6s_s), for the 1st Sunday after Trinity, opening the second cycle in 1724, as a plain chorale, BWV 397 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=03BrPgzmZoA). Bach probably used the plain chorale setting in the St. Mark Passion (no. 11) in 1731. The hymn also is found as keyboard settings BWV 949 and 921 and as a sacred song, BWV 513 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=03BrPgzmZoA).

Bach also set the Rist hymn to open Cantata BWV 60 for the 24th Sunday after Trinity 1724 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eiRX59OUvJg), one year before chorale Cantata BWV 180 (see above, “Schmücke dich, O liebe Seele”). Bach closed Cantata 60 with a plain chorale setting of the Franz Joachim Burmeister (an extension of Elijah’s prayer as found in 1 Kings 19:4) and Johann Rudolf Ahle 1662 chorale, "Es ist genug!" (It is enough!), five 9-line stanzas (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iwpwr0MYNWc). It is a hymn of Death and Dying in the NLGB, No. 386. As with the chorale, “Ach, wie flüchtig, ach wie nichtig” (see above), “Es ist genug” repeats the dictum to introduce all five stanzas. The German text and Francis Browne’s English translation are found at BCW, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale053-Eng3.htm. Information on the melody (Zahn 7173) and text is found at BCW, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/CM/Es-ist-genug.htm.

Addendum: Special Hymn Settings

"Nun freut euch/Es ist gewißlich” (NLGB 391, BWV 307); Pulpit Hymn for the 27th Sunday after Trinity. "Nun freut euch lieben Christen g'mein" (Martin Luther 1524), often is known by the alternate title "Es ist gewißlich an der Zeit" (It is certainly time) appears in the NLGB (No. 232) as a Catechism "Justification" hymn following Catechism Communion hymns. For text and translation, see http://www.musicanet.org/robokopp/Lieder/nunfreut.html. "Es ist gewißlich an der Zeit" (It is certainly time, NLGB Puplit Hymn) is Bartholomäus Ringwaldt's 1582 seven-stanza setting of the Latin Requiem, Dies ire sequence. It is found in the NLGB 390, in the last of the Trinity Time omnes tempore topics, "Judgement Day." Its only specific listing in the NLGB as a service hymn is for the 25th Sunday after Trinity. "This hymn was sung in Leipzig and Dresden as the hymn of the day for this Sunday," says Günther Stiller.13 Text and translation, http://www.musicanet.org/robokopp/Lieder/esistgew.html. It is sung to the Joseph Klug/Martin Luther 1529 melody, also set to the Martin Luther popular omnes tempore Catechism Communion text, "Nun freut euch, lieChristen g'mein" ((Now rejoice ye, dear Christians all) often known by the alternate title "Es ist gewißlich an der Zeit," appears in the NLGB as No. 232 under "Justification," following Communion hymns. In addition, "Es ist gewißlich an der Zeit" is found in the Sebastian Bach Choral-Buch (SBCB), Page 258 a (Zahn melody 4429), under "Last Judgment."

Bach set the Ringwaldt text, "Es ist gewißlich an der Zeit," to music once as a plain chorale but utilized the melody (Zahn 4429a) four other times: 1. In the four-voice plain chorale setting of B-flat Major, catalogued as BWV 307 (http://www.bach-chorales.com/BWV0307.htm, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3sxmn2IEiE4), 2. As a trumpet canto in No. 9, bass recitative with chorale trope, "Ach, soll nicht dieser große Tag,/ Der Welt Verfall" (Ah, should not this great day, the ruin of the world) in Cantata BWV 70, "Wachet! Betet! Betet! Wachet!" (Watch, pray, pray, watch) for the 26th Sunday after Trinity, November 21, 1723; 3. With the melody in the tenor voice in the early, Miscellaneous Organ Chorale, BWV 734 in G Major, with the double title of "Es ist gewißlich an der Zeit" and "Nun freut euch, lieben Christen g'mein." (Editions of the music, for two manuals, also include the melody and figured bass with the pedal playing the bass line); 4. In the four-voice plain chorale, BWV 388, in G Major, with the title "Nun freut euch, lieben Christen g'mein" (http://www.bach-chorales.com/BWV0388.htm, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pCYnR9hVFec). 5. In the four-voice early questionable Miscellaneous Organ Chorale, BWV 755, in G Major, similar in style to the Neumeister Collection, and identified as "Es ist gewißlich an der Zeit." Bach also designated "Nun freut euch, lieben Christen g'mein" as No. 85, as Catechism Communion hymn, listed but not set in the Orgelbüchlein (Little Organ Book) chorale preludes composed in Weimar.

"Es wird schier der letzten Tag herkommen"

"Es wird schier der letzten Tag herkommen" (Lo, the final day is fast approaching), NLGB 393 (Judgment Day/Doomsday, Resurrection of the Dead, and Eternal Life), has text and melody of Michael Weisse, 20 stanzas (Zahn melody 1423). This is one of the few Trinity Time Hymns of the Day that is assigned only to one other Sunday (Trinity 25, Pulpit hymn) and is not well-known, although the theme Judgement Day is significant. The Source is the Bohemian Bretheran (and martyrs) Kirchengeseng church songbook of 1580 (see Wackernagel, p. 253); Text and English translation, Michael Carver, Hymnoglypt 2009/12, http://matthaeusglyptes.blogspot.com/2009_12_01_archive.html, scroll down to last entry. "The tune (in d minor), later known as the proper for this hymn, in the aforementioned hymnal is named `Ach, Gott, man mag wohl in diesen Tagen' (Ah, God, one may well in this day)." Bach set "Es wird schier der letzten Tag herkommen," as a plain chorale, BWV 310 (http://www.bach-chorales.com/BWV0310.htm, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_b2tIZ2c8Zs) in e minor. It also is found in the Sebastian Bach Choral-Buch (SBCB, p. 259), under the category "Last Judgment."

"Gott has das Evangelium gegeben"

”Gott hat das Evangelium gegeben” (God gave us the Gospel) (Mat. 24), NLGB 390, Judgment Day, text and melody, Erasmus Alber, Wittenberg, 14 stanzas, is listed as Communion Hymn for the 25th Sunday after Trinity (melody Zahn 1788). Bach’s only extant use is as a plain chorale, BWV 319, in e minor (http://www.bach-chorales.com/BWV0319.htm, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xKf3VkGeKBY),
German text, https://hymnary.org/text/gott_hat_das_evangelium_gegeben; English (on-line) translation, https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=de&u=https://hymnary.org/text/gott_hat_das_evangelium_gegeben&prev=search). ”Gott hat das Evangelium gegeben” is listed in Bach’s Orgelbüchlein chorale preludes under “Death and the Grave” (/Dying, Death & Eternity),” as No. 141 (Last Days) but not set by Bach. It also is found in the Sebastian Bach Choral-Buch (SBCB), Page 253 (Zahn 1788), as a Last Judgement hymn. There are twoorgan chorale settings of ”Gott hat das Evangelium gegeben” (both in A Major) in the complete Neumeister Collection in the Christmas section that are now attributed to Johann Michael Bach (1648-1694): JMB 6 (I, Page 10, no concordances), and JMB 7(II, concordances previously attributed to Pachelbel as PWC 174). They are published in J. M. Bach The Complete Organ Chorales with the Christoph Wolff “Preface” (Hänssler Verlag, Neuhausen Stuttgart, HE 30.650, 1988). Recording (JMB7/PWC174), http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dg_dyRmjq-A

Three other hymns in the NLGB not set by Bach (source: http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV70-D4.htm).

”Herzlich tut mich erfreuen” (O, how my heart rejoices) has a text and tune by Luther colleague, Johann Walther (1496-1570), published in his sacred song book, Ein schöner Geistlicher und Christlicher newer Berckreyen, Dresden 1552, 33 stanzas. It is listed in NLGB as No. 395, 25 stanzas (no Zahn melody listed; from original Greek, then German folk song) and is described as “Christ-like and trusting thought and poetry on the account of the fear of the Judgement Day and Eternal Life.” It is not found in the Sebastian Bach Choral-Buch (SBCB). See BCW Biography, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Lib/Walter-Johann.htm. Music: http://www.hymntime.com/tch/pdf/h/e/r/Herzlich%20Tut%20Mich%20Erfreuen.pdf. German Text (9 stanzas only): http://www.gesangbuch.org/lyrics/h0039.html (no English translation found). Not to be confused with the Passion chorale, “Herzlich tut, mich verlangen,” or the altered 19th century melody found in English language Lutheran hymnals, set to a new text, “Day of Resurrection”.

”Ach Gott tu dich erbarmen” (O God! Have mercy); M Münzer text c.1550, Seth Calvisius melody in G Major, 1597; NLGB 396, Judgement Day, Erasmus Alber, Judgement Day, 12 stanzas Zahn 7228c, is found in Straussborg Songbook 1616. Bach’s connections involve three listings: Neumeister Chorale, BWV 1109, four-part chorale with interludes (long fore-imitations) in 3/2 in D Major; Sebastian Bach Choral-Buch (SBCB), Page 254-55 (Zahn melody 7228), as a Judgement Day hymn; and <Orgelbüchlein> No. 142, Death and the Grave (Day of Judgement), not set by Bach. It also is found in the Sebastian Bach Choral-Buch (SBCB), Page 255-55, as a Last Judgement hymn.

”Fritsch auff (Fruh auf) und lasst uns singen” (Rise up and let us sing); (NLGB 392, Judgement Day) of Johann Rist (1607-1667), was set by Heinrich Scheidemann (1595-1663), Hamburg (SSATB), 10 stanzas (melody Z8552a) was not set by Bach and is not found in the Sebastian Bach Choral-Buch (SBCB). English translation: http://www.flickr.com/photos/51243943@N00/4714388979 (Melodie: Nun lob mein' Seel' den Herren” (Zahn 8244).

FOOTNOTES

1 Cited in Marcus Rathey, Chapter 3, “Layers of Time,” Johann Sebastian Bach’s Christmas Oratorio: Music, Theology, Culture (New York: Oxford University Press, 53ff).
2 Charles S. Terry, Bach’s Chorals, Part III: The Hymns and Hymn Melodies of the Organ Works (Cambridge University Press, 2017. http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2057: 62). Most of the plain chorale and sacred sings are found in Helmut Rilling v. 84 “Patience and Serenity, and vol. 85, Dying, Death and Eternity, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Vocal/BWV250-438-Rilling.htm, Ch-11, CH-12.
3 Johann Flittner biography, https://hymnary.org/person/Flitner_J; German text, https://www.bach-digital.de/receive/BachDigitalWork_work_00000431;jsessionid=E326E8382DA698E1EEB969B2DB6E8C1C?XSL.Style=detail; English (on-line) translation, https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=de&u=https://www.bach-digital.de/receive/BachDigitalWork_work_00000431&prev=search; melody information, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/CM/BWV473.htm; Johann Rudolf Ahle, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Lib/Ahle-Johann-Rudolf.htm
4 “Ach, was soll ich Sunder machen” German text, https://hymnary.org/text/ach_was_soll_ich_suender_machen.; BWV 770, Peter Williams commentary, https://books.google.com/books?id=gTXxUk1LAowC&pg=PA525&lpg=PA525&dq=BWV+770+Peter+Williams+Bach+Organ+Music&source=bl&ots=yaYZOG7f7p&sig=B4wcshIV2icPg1gMmtMwCAFqm0U&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiJ0MmmjpDYAhUIzGMKHYMoAw8Q6AEILzAB#v=onepage&q=BWV%20770%20Peter%20Williams%20Bach%20Organ%20Music&f=false.
5 Michael Franck biography, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Lib/Franck-Michael.htm; German text and Francis Browne English translation, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale122-Eng3.htm; melody information, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/CM/Ach-wie-fluchtig.htm.
6 “Ach, was ist doch unser Leben” German text, https://hymnary.org/text/ach_was_ist_doch_unser_leben; English (on-line translation), https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=de&u=https://hymnary.org/text/ach_was_ist_doch_unser_leben&prev=search; melody information, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/CM/Freu-dich-sehr.htm; BWV 743, see Peter Williams’ commentary, https://books.google.com/books?id=3SfzUEWrDR0C&pg=PA489&lpg=PA489&dq=ach,+was+ist+doch+unser+leben+peter+williams&source=bl&ots=yubq_rLQTm&sig=ZDpQ2UF3LGfPjDEEbh3IikLxlM8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjNrsSXmp7YAhUBRyYKHdMXAoAQ6AEIKTAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
7 NLGB No. 380, text and melody, https://books.google.com/books?id=ST9YAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA971&lpg=PA971&dq=“Allenthalben,+wo+ich+gehe”&source=bl&ots=69AwYyvKIc&sig=crza7B806wV6Qe8WAtRA6bk5pg0&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiyq5uAn57YAhVGSSYKHVpkBHEQ6AEIQDAG#v=onepage&q=“Allenthalben%2C%20wo%20ich%20gehe”&f=false. Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch: Von den schönsten und besten Liedern ...
https://books.google.com/books?id=ST9YAAAAcAAJ; Further information, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/LCY/M&C-Trinity27.htm.
8 Ahasverus Fritsch biography, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Lib/Fritsch.htm; German text and Francis Browne English translation, BCW http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale141-Eng3.htm; Gotha Hymnal, http://www.orgelbuechlein.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/Witt-607-Hast-du-denn-Jesu-dein-Angesicht.pdf.
9 Christian Keymann biography, BCW http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Lib/Keymann.htm; German text, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale499-Eng3.htm; English (on-line) translation (five stanzas), https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=de&u=https://www.bach-digital.de/receive/BachDigitalWork_work_00000480&prev=search; melody information, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/CM/BWV499.htm; BWV 768 Peter Williams Commentary, https://books.google.com/books?id=JPE6AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA309&lpg=PA309&dq=Sei+gegrusset,+Jesu+gutig+BWV+768+Peter+Williams&source=bl&ots=OKYwrozRq8&sig=TQut8arTzVe3PlKsHoqUlcgMpbY&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiY3d--wJ7YAhXLOiYKHb25D3QQ6AEIOzAD#v=onepage&q=Sei%20gegrusset%2C%20Jesu%20gutig%20BWV%20768%20Peter%20Williams&f=false
10 Johann Franck biography, BCW http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Lib/Franck-Johann.htm; details https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=de&u=https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schm%25C3%25BCcke_dich,_o_liebe_Seele&prev=search; melody information, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/CM/Schmucke-dich.htm.
11 Anne Leahy, Johann Sebastian Bach's Leipzig Chorale Preludes, Contextual Bach Studies No. 3, ed. Robin A. Leaver (Toronto: Scarecrow Press, 2011, 59-78).
12 Johann Rist biography, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Lib/Rist.htm; German text and Francis Browne English translation, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale007-Eng3.htm; melody information, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/CM/O-Ewigkeit-du-Donnerwort.htm.
13 Günther Stiller, Johann Sebastian Bach and Liturgical Life in Leipzig (St. Louis MO, Concordia Publishing; 1984: 252).

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To Come: Christmas Oratorio, Christmas Festival Setting and Christological Incarnation.

 


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