Cantata BWV 142Uns ist ein Kind Geoboren
Russell Telfer wrote (February 15, 2007):
I have just spent a weekend studying and rehearsing Uns ist ein Kind Geboren, the cantata dignified with the title of BWV 142 (as well as BWV 248'2 and the Lauds from BWV 243). The German choral score shouts ANONYMUS at you on the front.
What a pity we don't know who it's by. You don't have to be too skilled to tell it's unlikely to be by Bach, but it's not far off, with some exciting touches. It has a labour-saving device which I'm not aware of Bach himself using, namely no 7 for Alto takes the music from the Tenor aria of no 5 and transposes it a fourth.
I've noted with interest recent comment on the "Problem" with the list and am doing my bit by sitting on my hands every time I feel tempted to be embroiled.
Incidentally I am occupying myself creating a midi version of this cantata - it fills a gap, it's good practice and it has a satisfying payoff. Later I intend to enhance it using Myriad - which I regard as the best choice of music notation software at its price. I hope to make it available to members but it'll take a week or two.
Aryeh Oron wrote (February 15, 2007):
[To Russel Telfer] BWV 142 is most probably by Johann Kuhnau, J.S. Bach's predecessor as Thomaskantor:
This is a charming work that should be better known.
Francis Browne provided an English translation, which you might find useful:
When the MIDI file is ready, I shall be happy to present it at the BCW.
Bach/Kuhnau - BWV 142 Uns ist ein Kind geboren [Beginners Bach]
Peter wrote (July 5, 2007):
Whilst Steve and Jack are treating us all to their thoughts on the real Bach cantatas, back over here in the junior section, our local community orchestra has just started to rehearse BWV 142 "Uns ist ein Kind geboren" which we are planning to put on over the Christmas period. It appears this is not by Bach but by one Johann Kuhnau. Does anyone have any views, comments on this work? Has anyone ever played it before as an amateur (or indeed professional)? Any advice on how it should be played? I would be most interested to hear anyone's comments.
Steven Foss wrote (July 8, 2007):
[To Peter] This is my second attempt to reply to your email. My first attempt was lengthy and was lost when 1000 other homes in the Riverside, California were suddenly without electric power and I temporarily lost my religion. I will attempt a brief summation.
I have not sung or performed instruments for BWV 142. The consensus is that this piece is not by Bach. As to Johann Kuhnau's authorship, it is only an "attributed to" work, with no final answer on the subject that I could find. (Spurious, Possibly by Kuhnau, Attributed to Kuhnau, etc seem to be the only references to infer that J S Bach not being the Author without proof to the contrary). At least Bach did not burn his predecessor's works as J J Rheinberger would later do in another Church in the 19th century.
Kuhnau is not the only composer who's work was misindentified as belonging to Bach by an overly enthusiastic Bach Geshellschaft. Witt (a Passaglia in d minor) and H. Purcell (another Keyboard Piece, hard to believe considering the completely different system of ornaments used by HP) as well as an alumni of Bach's stundents, especially the younger Krebs, and other anon individuals.
Johann Kuhnau of course was JSB predecessor as Kantor at St. Thomas Kirk. Kuhnau published a variety of Keyboard works under the title Klavier Uebung, and publication was during the 18th century generally only undertaken by someone with a reputation. (Publication was for something special as the expense of printing and the high price of the finished product, as expensive as a musical instrument, meant the distribution was for the wealthy and not the Masses.) Kuhnau's publication antedates that of Domenico Scarlatti's publication of Harpsichord Sonatas, and is noteworthy that Kuhnau's work contains pieces with the crossing over hands on the keyboard.
J S Bach was a shrewd business man in using the same title for his printed opus of Harpsichord Pieces and Organ Pieces, as J S Bach used a "Branding" or High name recognition with his publication (4 parts in all) under essential the same name, Clavier Übung.
(And all those that would argue that Clavier equals a Clavichord, I might point out that a 2 manual Harpsichord was specified for Parts 2 and 4, and an Organ for Part 3. Likewise in the manuscript copies for the Harpsichord Suites, the titles is in variably Suite pour la Clavecin, i e Harpsichord).
However, I digress. Your question is about performance.
Christmas pieces have a way of being played and consequently becoming popular. (It wasn't until the 1920's that the tradition of performing the Nutcracker at Christmas time became established, the performance was not expected to be at the Yuletide). Uns ist ein Kind geboren could be easily translated to Unto Us A Child is Born (with all do respect to Handel's Messiah, which was originally performed 13th of April, 1742-for Easter-has also become a fixture of Christmas time.)
If you have any influence over the conductor, here are some observations on performing 18th century music.
As this is a Christmas piece, the underlying feeling is one of great happiness and Joy and ones singing should reflect this.
What I have seen of the vocal score without the text is all in a minor, ie http://www.mutopiaproject.org/ftp/KuhnauJ/BWV142/part2/part2-a4.pdf , not the most cheery key. However, the Xmas Carols We Three Kings, and What Child is This are also in minor keys among others.
If a reference is to the future suffering of Christ, one should sing in a contemplative mood rather than a funereal, ie, the We Three Kings verse starting Myhrr is mine its bitter perfume."
During Advent (or Lent for that matter), 18th century organists restricted their use of stops or used the stops sparingly. During festive times such as Christmas, the Organists pulled out the stops, using more colorful stops and combination of stops (and a bell like contraption called a Cymbalstern). The basic idea was more austere performances during Advent to be superceded by more colorful perfornances during Christmas.
As this work is scored for 2 first Violins, 2 Second Violins, 1 Viola, 1 Cello, 1 Bass, and Harpsichord (could be continou), the issue of how many string players and singers per part.
As from Jack's many posts, The Leipzig council wasn't the most supportive of public servants when the subject of Church music was concerned. So in all possibilites the orchestra was probably not much more than a String quartet with a Bass and a couple of Violins to beef the ensemble. I would rather see 3 Violins per part, 2 Violas, 2 Cellos, and 1 Bass. 3 fiddles seem to stay in tune better than two, Violas are a little bit louder and harder to come by, ditto the Cellos, and this arrangement is both Period Instrument Correct and it isn't the end of the world if one instrumentalist gets sick, with the exception of the Bass player; just pray he doesn't get the flu.
I would similarly recommend the same rule of 3 for the choir. 3 vocies tend to stay on pitch (intonation) more easily than two.
Now for reality.
Not knowianything about the size or resources of your Choir, I will make some observations for choirs I have sung in during my checkered past:
It is more than likely that the choir has a number of individuals that will be singing than the above I mentioned.
If it is a church choir, the majority of these singers can barely read music and will be singing by rote. If it is the typica church choir or choral society, it will have an over abundance of Sopranos, most Sopranos that cannot sing above the c above middle c. This group will overpower the rest of the choir by their sheer numbers or blunt force trauma.
There will be one Alto. She will be able to sing even into the lower Tenor range and have difficulty in the higher notes of the Alto range. A few Mezzo-Sopranos will be press ganged into singing Alto by coercion.
There will be one Tenor. The rest of the so-called Tenors are actually Baritones that are falsettoing any note above the E above middle C. They will be few in number.
There will be one Bass. Again, the rest of the Basses are actually Baritones that are stretching to reach the lower notes. There will be about twice as many Basses as Tenors.
Maybe only several individuals can sight read and sing from a score without the benefit of any rehearsal.
There will be no String orchestra. In its place will be either an Organ or Piano playing an arrangement of the score while simultaneously doubling all of the Soprano, Alto, Tenor, and Bass parts.
In sections were there is only the basses singing, the tenors (1 tenor and baritones) will have to double the Bass line. If only the Altos are singing, the Tenors and Baritones will more than likely will be doubling in a falsetto voice. The above is especially true if either group has to sing against the Sopranos.
I think the best recommendations on how to perform BWV 142 Uns ist ein Kind geboren come from J S Bach himself, which he wrote to the Leipzig council as to the minimum requirements needed for church music performance. It is reproduced in the Bach Reader.
Good Luck on the Performance.
Peter wrote (July 9, 2007):
[To Steve Foss] Thank you very much for your most interesting reply which I will certainly pass on to our conductor. I will reply in more detail when we return from a short trip to Venice - we leave in 20 minutes! Hope to do a bit of "following in Vivaldi's footsteps" there whilst the others do the usual St. Mark's, Doge's palace, etc...
Steven Foss wrote (July 10, 2007):
[To Peter] Bon Voyage!
Discussions in the Week of March 29, 2009
Douglas Cowling wrote (March 28, 2009):
Week of March 29: BWV 142 Kuhnau: ³Uns ist ein Kind Geboren²
Week of March 29: BWV 142 Kuhnau: ³Uns ist ein Kind Geboren²
Cantata for Christmas Day
Attributed to J.S. Bach in BGA
Probably by Johann Kuhnau (1660-1720)
Cantor of St. Thomas, Leipzig: 1701-22
1st performance: December 25, 1720 (?) - Leipzig
Links to texts, translations, scores, recordings and earlier discussions:
Audio clips of ³Uns ist ein Kind geboren²
[link below CD cover]
Audio clips of four Kuhnau cantatas (Robert King}:
Ihr Himmel jubilirt von oben
Weicht ihr Sorgen aus dem Hertzen
Gott, sei mir gnädig nach deiner Güte
Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern
Kuhnau opens with an Italian-style concerto grosso with three pairs of flutes/recorders, oboes and violins. The two bar ritornello is more a punctuation than a section, although Bach used much the same motif in the C Major Concerto for Two Harpsichords. The use of a minor key for a Christmas cantata is unusual. Kuhnauıs choice of concluding chorale may have dictated A minor. However this is a very lively movement, not unlike Vivaldiıs Violin Concerto in A Minor (the one every Suzuki student plays!)
Does anyone what is going on in the two flute parts in BGA score? They both appear a third lower than they are supposed to, but they are not transposed. That produces a strange F natural- E sharp in the first bar. It looks to me that someone misread a clef and just kept copying. Are there transposing recorders or flutes?
2. Chorus: ³Uns ist ein Kind geboren²
The opening chorus is a double fugue on the two halves of the Dictum text from Isaiah. The strings. The first violin adds adds a fifth voice. The texture becomes more homophonic in the second section, the counterpoint passing largely to the strings. Flutes and oboes only appear in the concluding coda. The biblical text had been sung in Latin earlier in the service as versicles before the collect (see Musical Sequence for Christmas Day below. The liturgical sequence would have been the same for Kuhnau and he used the same motet collections as Bach). Kuhnau also set this text for his cantata ³Wie schön leuchtet² (see audio clip above)
3. Aria (bass): Dein Geburstag is erschienen²
The libretto of the cantata is by Neumeister, and this bipartite bass aria is the first modern poetic movement. The ritornello is written for violins without viola, a favorite sonority of the 17th century. The principal motif of the second section is a written-out tremolo on ³was ich suche².
4. Chorus: Ich will den Namen Gottes loben²
The second chorus in C major opens with a triple-time fugue of the type often encountered in the Bachıs older contemporaries. Bach obviously valued this type of fugue which is very similar to passages in J.C. Bachıs ³Lieber Herr Gott² which Wolff thinks Bach had copied for his own funeral. The counterpoint disappears in the second half of this chorus in favour of a homophonic dance movement.
5. Aria (tenor): ³Jesu, dir sei Dank²
The tenor has a da capo aria accompanied by two oboes and continuo. The dotted figure is preminiscent of the theme of ³Sehet Jesu hat die hand² in the SMP. The very brief middle section is for voice and continuo alone.
6. Recitative (alto): ³Immanuel²
The secco recitative for alto reminds us of the ³Immanuel² recitative in Part Four of the Christmas Oratorio. At the mention of ³praise², the soloist launches into a lovely little three bar arioso.
7. Aria (alto): ³Jesu, dir sei Preis²
Commentators are almost universally snippy and sniffy that Kuhnau repeats the tenor aria, this time for flutes/recorders (again in that odd notation) and alto in D minor (without a key signature?). Actually, Kuhau is quite clever. The first aria has the text, ³Jesu, dir sei Dank gesungen², while this cantata has ³Jesu, dir sei Preis gesungen². The transposition and changes in voicing and scoring are actually quite effective hardly a dodge by a lazy hack. Even Bach was known to repeat movements: ³Jesu bleibet meine Freude² (Jesu Joy of Manıs desiring) is repeated without alteration in Cantata BWV 147, ³Herz und Mund².
8. Chorale: ³Allelujah, allelujah²
The closing setting of the chorale, ³Wir Christenleut,² still appears often in choral anthologies and is performed quite often by church choirs who are clearly attracted by its similarity to ³Jesu, Joy of Manıs Desiring² with a simply harmonized chorale graced with a strong unison melody played by tutti strings and winds. The chorale was also sung later in the service as a communion hymn (see Musical Sequence for Christmas Day below)
MUSICAL SEQUENCE FOR CHRISTMAS DAY IN BACH'S TIME:
The sequence would be the same for Kuhnau who would have used contemporary choral and organ works in the prescribed places.
Tower bells rung at 6 amand again at 7 am:
The 5200 kg bell ³Gloriosa² (1477) (pitched in A) was rung only on festivals Candles lit at 7 am, Archdeacon of Leipzig officiates as celebrant; Deacon assists Musicians must be in loft by final bell or be fined.
Organ Prelude on ³Puer Natus² (BWV 603 Orgelbüchlein?)
Settings by Bach or other composers before all chorales & choral works
Introit Hymn/Motet by Choir: ³Puer Natus In Bethlehem²
Settings by Praetorius or Schein are possible
Organ Prelude before Kyrie to establish key and cover tuning
Missa Brevis: Kyrie & Gloria (Plainsong Gloria intonation sung by Celebrant)
A concerted setting in Latin was sung from Christmas Day to Epiphany.
Bachıs own missae breve are generally from his later tenure in Leipzig but may have been used with later performances of the cantata:
B minor (1733) used in B Minor Mass [only missa brevis with brass]
BWV 233 - F major (1738)
based on Christmas cantata ³Dazu ist Erscheinen² 2 horns
BWV 233a Kyrie (1708-1712)
BWV 234 A major (1738)
BWV 235 G minor (1738)
BWV 236 G Major (1738)
Collect/Prayer of Day sung in Latin plainsong by Celebrant
with Versicles ³Puer Natus est nobis²
Choral Responses sung to four-part polyphony
from Vopelius collection ³Neue Leipziger Gesangbuch²
Epistle: Titus 2:11-14 (The grace of God has appeared)
sung by Deacon in German to plainsong
Organ Prelude on ³Gelobet Seist Du² (BWV 314 or 604?)
Congregational Gradual Hymn of the Day (³de temporeı,):
³Gelobet Seist Du, Jesu Christ ³
Gospel choral responses sung in six-part polyphony from Vopelius collection
Gospel : Luke 2: 1-14 (Birth of Christ)
sung by Deacon in German to plainsong
Organ Prelude on ³Wir Glauben All An Einen Gott² (BWV 1098?)
Congregational Creed Chorale:
³Wir Glauben All An Einen Gott² (Luther)
Organ Prelude before Cantata
Organ Prelude on ³Ein Kindelein So Löbelich² (BWV 719?)
Congregational Pulpit Hymn after the Cantata (Offertory)
³Ein Kindelein So Löbelich²
Sursum Corda sung in Latin in six-part polyphony
from Vopelius collection
Preface sung in Latin by Celebrant
Sanctus (without Benedictus)
A concerted setting was sung in Latin during Christmas week.
BWV 237 C major
BWV 238 D major
BWV 239 D Minor
BWV 240 G Major (arr?)
BWV 241 D Major (Kerll?)
Hand bells rung at the altar at the end of the Sanctus
Lordıs Prayer sung in German plainsong by Celebrant
Choral Amen from Vopelius
Verba (Words of Institution) sung in German plainsong by Celebrant
Chorale-prelude before Cantata
Second Cantata ³sub communione² during Communion?
Unknown if by Bach or other composer;
Bachıs motet ³Lobet den Herrn² has a traditional Christmas text.
Chorale-preludes before hymns
Other congregational hymns during Communion:
introduced by organ prelude:
³Ich Freue Mich In Dir² (Ziegler)
³Wir Christenleut² (Fuger)
Prayer after Commuiom
Sung in Latin by celebrant
Choral responses 4 part polyphony from Vopelius
Sung in German by celebrant
Choral Amen 4 part polyphony from Vopelius
Organ Prelude on ³³Ein Kind Geborn zu Bethlehem²
Final Congregational Hymn: ³Ein Kind Geborn zu Bethlehem²
German repeat of Introit chorale
Kim Patrick Clow wrote (March 30, 2009):
Douglas Cowling wrote:
< Does anyone what is going on in the two flute parts in BGA score? They both appear a third lower than they are supposed to, but they are not transposed. That produces a strange F natural- E sharp in the first bar. It looks to me that someone misread a clef and just kept copying. Are there transposing recorders or flutes? >
Could it perhaps be the instrument was really a flute d'amore?
Douglas Cowling wrote (March 30, 2009):
Kim Patrick Clow wrote:
< Could it perhaps be the instrument was really a flute d'amore? >
I never realized such a beast existed!
And here's an article describing the various kinds of flutes d'amore: http://www.tootlingted.co.uk/Flute%20article.htm
It includes comments about Bach's use of the instrument. It would be interesting to know whether the instrument had pastoral/Christmas associations for both Kuhnau and Bach:
"Bach used the instrument in Cantatas and it is possible that some of his flute sonatas we play on concert flute were in fact intended for flute dıamore. More research is needed to verify this. There is one example where the indication for flute dıamore does clearly appear on a Bach score and that is for two flutes dıamore in the orchestral pastoral in part ii of the Christmas Oratorio (BWV 248). There is evidence that he used the flute dıamore and other larger flutes in other works as the range of the part goes below that of the C flute. Again, this requires closer research."
"The Flute dıamore" by Kate Walsh
Kim Patrick Clow wrote (March 31, 2009):
Douglas Cowling wrote:
< I never realized such a beast existed!
And here's an article describing the various kinds of flutes d'amore:
It includes comments about Bach's use of the instrument. It would be interesting to know whether the instrument had pastoral/Christmas associations for both Kuhnau and Bach: >
Certainly seems to be the case for Christoph Graupner, he used it in several pieces including a large A major orchestral suite for flute/oboe/viola d'amore and strings. I call it "The Lovey Dovey Suite" ;)
You can hear some excerpted movements using my edition here: http://arsantiguapresents.com/tag/joyce-alper/
Douglas Cowling wrote (March 31, 2009):
Kim Patrick Clow wrote:
< Certainly seems to be the case for Christoph Graupner, he used it in several pieces including a large A major orchestral suite for flute/oboe/viola d'amore and strings. I call it "The Lovey Dovey Suite" ;) >
Viola dıamore, oboe dıamore, AND traverso dıamore! I can feel the love!
James Atkin Pritchard wrote (March 31, 2009):
[To Douglas Cowling, in response to his Introduction message] Doug, would the music by Vopelius have been used at every choral eucharist? And do you know whether it's available in a modern edition? Also, is the German plainsong you mention (lections, Lord's Prayer, Verba etc.) available?
Douglas Cowling wrote (March 31, 2009):
[To James Atkins Pritchard] The "Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch" (1682) was edited by Vopelius and contained settings of the "ordinary" of mass and vespers by 17th century composers such as Demantius and Praetorius. It functioned like a hymn book for liturgical texts, providing Bach with settings of items which were required every Sunday. There are polyphonic settings of familiar ordinary texts like the Gloria and Sanctus which could sung when a concerted setting was not required, but there are also elaborate polyphonic settings of simple texts like the "Dominus vobiscum/Et cum spiritu tuo" and "Amen" sung every Sunday before and after the prescribed Collect or Prayer of the Day.
The collection makes distinctions between Sundays. For instance, there is a four-part setting of the "Gloria tibi Domine" acclamation before the Gospel for ordinary Sundays and an extended six-voice setting for principal festivals. This certainly parallels the degree of elaboration we see in cantatas for the big festivals. This collection and the Bodenschatz collection of motets bear witness to the large number of 17th century settings which characterized Bach's weekly music-making. The "modern" cantatas would have stood out in arresting contrast to the oalbeit very beautiful repertoire.
As far as I can determine, the entire collection has not been edited for performance. An appendix in Jürgen Grimm, "Das Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch des Gottfried Vopelius (Leipzig 1682). Untersudcungen zur Klirung seiner geschichtlicben Stellung" provides a few dozen examples of shorter works, written in terrible hand-written scrawl. I'm editing these pieces, as well as a number referenced in the works of Praetorius, for a concert reconstruction of a Bach Christmas mass next season by the Tallis Choir of Toronto. I'll probably post them to the Choral Public Domain Library at some point.
Ed Myskowski wrote (April 2, 2009):
Douglas Cowling wrote
>This collection and the Bodenschatz collection of motets bear witness to the large number of 17th century settings which characterized Bach's weekly music-making. The "modern" cantatas would have stood out in arresting contrast to the older albeit very beautiful repertoire.<
An important point, which Doug never fails to emphasize. Why am I thinking of John Coltrane playing <My Favorite Things>? Must be something friendish in the April First air.
Kim Patrick Clow wrote (April 2, 2009):
Here is a cute arrangment of some movements from BWV 142 performed by a single flute player, but doing all the parts himself, and then stitched together to form a video. He uses a bass flute which has a wonderful sound I think. I hope you enjoy it as much as I did. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Aj9DJrLUMfQ
James Atkins Pritchard wrote (April 4, 2009):
[To Kim Patrick Clow] Kim, this Graupner is very beautiful. Thank you so much.
Continue of this part of the discussion, see: Christoph Graupner & Bach [Bach & Other Composers]
James Atkins Pritchard wrote (April 4, 2009):
Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch [was: Week of March 29: BWV 142 Kuhnau: ³Uns ist ein Kind Geboren²]
[To Douglas Cowling] Thank you so much for this information. I'll look forward to your CPDL posting, and I hope that someday in the not too distant future a modern edition of the entire collection appears.
Cantata BWV 142: Complete Recordings | Recordings of Individual Movements | Discussions | Discussions of Non-Bach Cantatas: Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 4
Johann Kuhnau: Short Biography | Cantata BWV 142 | Motet Tristis est anima mea / Der Gerechte kömmt um | Passions-Pasticcio BWV 1088 | Johann Kuhnau & Bach | Music