William Hoffman wrote (February 25, 2016):
(Note: This should be filed in the BCW under “Musical Context of Bach Cantatas: Motets& Chorales for Events in the Lutheran Church Year,” http://www.bach-cantatas.com/LCY/M&C-Table.htm: Septuagesima Sunday, 3rd Sunday before Lent; Sexagesima Sunday, 2nd Sunday before Lent; Quinquagesima Sunday, Sunday before Lent)
The three so-called “gesima” or “Lord’s Day” Pre-Lenten Sundays are known as Septuagesima, Sexagesima, and Quinquagesima Estomihi. While rarely observed in today’s Christian churches, in Bach’s time they were an important transition from the Christmas season and Epiphany Time to the Lenten season and Holy Week, culminating in the Good Friday Passion and Easter Sunday resurrection. Bach’s choice of chorales reflected this transition and the freedom he was given to utilize varied omnes tempore (Ordinary Time) hymns preparatory for Lent in the first two Sundays and use Passion chorales for Quinquagesima Estomihi. Bach responded with three varied cantatas for each of the three Sundays, often a chorus cantata (BWV 144, 181, 22-23), a chorale cantata (92, 126, 127), and a solo cantata (84, 18, 159) for each of the three cantata cycles.
Epiphany Time (omnes tempore) is followed by the three preparatory, pre-Lenten, so-called “Gesima” (Lord’s Day) Sundays: Septuagesima, Sexagesima, and Quinquagesima Estomihi, or the Fiftieth Day before Easter in preparation of Jesus crucifixion and death on Good Friday and resurrection on Easter Sunday following the Lenten penitential time of six fixed Sundays involving Quadragesima or 40 days. Thus, the three consecutive “Gesima” Sundays -- Septugesima (70 Days), Sexagesima (60 Days), and Quinguagesima (50 days) -- are misnomers or numerical generalities, enumerating the days of required fasting before Christ’s resurrection. The initial total 70 days of fasting recalls the 70 years Israel spent in captivity in Babylon.
The three “Gesima” Sundays were established by Pope Gregory (590-604 AD) to precede the 40 Lenten days. Septuagesima Sunday, the first of the Gesima Sundays or the Third Sunday before Lent, established the pre-Lenten fasting, reflection, and penitential period, observing the cessation of the Christmastide Alleluia and Gloria, with the use of Purple service paraments and vestments of Lent. Actual Lenten fasting practices have varied over the years.
Bach’s Pre-Lenten Cantatas1
Bach composed three varied cantatas for each of the three pre-Lent Sundays: Septuageisma (BWV 144, BWV 92, BWV 84), Sexagesima (BWV 18, BWV 181, BWV 126) and Quinquagesima Estomihi (BWV 22/23, BWV 127, BWV 159). Bach used non-Passion omnes tempore chorale texts in his first two pre-Lent “Gesima Sunday” cantatas: for Septuagesima, Samuel Rodigast’s 1674 “Was Gott tut, das ist wohlgetan” (What God does, that is done well (BWV 144/3), Paul Gerhardt’s 1647 “Ich hab in Gottes Herz und Sinn” (I have surrendered to God's heart and mind, Chorale Cantata BWV 92), and Ämilie Juliane von Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt’s 1657 “Wer weiß, wie nahe mir mein Ende” (Who knows how near to me is my end! (BWV 84/5). For Sexagesima are Lazarus Spengler’s 1524 “Durch Adams Fall ist ganz verderbt” (Through Adam’s is completely corrupted, BWV 18/5), Cantata 181 (no chorale), and Luther’s 1542 “Erhalt uns, bei deinem Wort" (Preserve us, Lord, with your word, BWV 126).
Instead of relying on his hymnbook, Das Neu Leipzig Gesangbuch of 1682, which listed a range of omnes tempore (Ordinary Time) hymns for “Gesima Sundays” but no Passion or newer chorales, Bach sometimes turned to the more varied Dresden hymn schedules. “In addition to several hymns mentioned specifically, the Dresden hymnbooks of about 1725 had often in a very general way suggested ‘Concerning the Christian Church and the Word of God,” including Bach’s favorite Luther hymns as in Chorale Cantata 126, says Günther Stiller.2 Chorale Cantata BWV 126 actually closes with a different Luther hymn, 1529 “Verlieh uns Frieden Gnädiglich” (Grant us peace, Dona nobis pacem), with similar melodies (Zahn 1945b).
Estomihi: Passion Chorales
|In his cantatas for Quinquagesima Estomihi, Bach was able to use Passion chorales in accordance with the hymn schedules of Leipzig and Dresden, says Stiller (Ibid.: 239). The cantatas are: “Jesus nahm zu sich die Zwölfe” (Jesus took the twelve to himself, BWV 22), “Du wahrer Gott und Davids Sohn” (Thou very God and David’s Son, BWV 23), “Herr Jesu Christ, wahr’r Mensch und Gott” (Lord Jesus Christ, true man and God, BWV 127), and “Sehet, wir gehen hinauf gen Jerusalem (See! We are going up to Jerusalem, BWV 159).” The chorales used in these cantatas are and their designations, says Stiller, are: “Herr Christ, der einig Gottes Sohn (Lord Christ, God’s only son, BWV 22/5, Epiphany Time)”; “Herzlich tut much verlangen” (Passion chorale) “Christe, du Lamm Gottes” (Christ, thou lamb of god, Cantata 23/4, Lenten) and “Herr Jesu Christ, wahr’ Mensch und Gott” (Lord Jesus Christ, true man and God, S.1&5, Estomihi) (BWV 127); and “Ich will hier bei dir stehen” (Passion Chorale, BWV 159/2) and “Jesu, deine Passion” with melody “Jesu, Kreutz, Leiden und Pein” (Jesus Cross, Suffering, and Pain, BWV 159/6).
The biblical readings for these three “Gesima” Sundays and the Introit Psalm motet are as follows:
Septuagesima: Readings: Epistle: 1 Corinthians 9:24-10:5 (Paul’s letter: parable, Our life is like a race; only one receives the prize; Gospel: Matthew 20:1-16 (Parable: The labourers in the vineyard. Complete text is the Martin Luther German translation (1545), with the English translation Authorised (King James) Version [KJV] 1611; for complete texts, see BCW Readings, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Read/Septuagesima.htm. Introit Psalm for Septuegesima Sunday is Psalm 38, Domine, ne in furore tuo arguas me (Lord rebuke me not in thy fury, Penitential Psalm), says Martin Petzoldt in Bach Commentary, Vol. 2, Advent to Trintyfest.3 He calls Psalm 38 “Bußgebet um Erledigung von der schweren Sündenlast (a Penitential Prayer about completion of sins’ burden). The full text for Psalm 38 is found at http://www.christiananswers.net/bible/psa38.html. The Penitential Psalms are Psalms 6, 32, 38, 51, 102, 130, 143. Psalm 38 has the same incipit as Psalm 6, which is paraphrased in chorale Cantata BWV 135, “Ach Herr, mich armen Sünder” (Ah Lord, poor sinner that I am), for the 3rd Sunday after Trinity 1724.
Sexagesima: The readings for Sexagesima Sunday, or the Second Sunday before Lent, are: Epistle: 2 Corinthians 11.19-12.9 (God’s power is mighty in the weak [Paul’s suffering], Gospel: Luke 8.4-15: The Parable of the Sower. The Litany (no. 3) is influenced by the persecution and sufferings of Paul in the Epistle reading. The texts are found at BCW, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Read/Sexagesima.htm. The introit Psalm is popular Psalm 1, Beatus vir qui nabiit (Blessed is the man that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly, KJV), says Petzoldt (Ibid.: 571). The theme of Psalm 1 is “Apprenticeship in Bliss of Piety and Punishment by Removal” (Lehre von Glückseligkeit der Frommen und Strafe der Gottlosen), says Petzoldt. The full text is found at http://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/Psalms-Chapter-1/.
Quinquagesima: Readings for Quinquagesima Estomihi are: Epistle: 1 Corinthians 13:1-13 (Paul’s Letter, “In praise of charity”); Gospel: Luke 18: 31-43 (Jesus, “We go up to Jerusalem,” Miracle, “The blind man receives sight”). The Quinquagesima Estomihi Sunday Gospel (Luke 18:31-43) has two distinct episodes, of Jesus telling the disciples of going to Jerusalem and his coming Passion as well as the miracle of sight restored to a blind man begging near Jericho. For complete texts, see BCW Readings, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Read/Estomihi.htm. Introit Psalm for Quinquagesima Estomihi Sunday in Bach's time was Psalm 31, In te, Domine, speravi (In thee, O Lord, do I put my trust, KJV), says Petzoldt (Ibid.: 599). It also is known in German as Adam Reusner’s 1533 “In dich hab' ich gehoffet Herr” (In you I have placed my hope, Lord; Christian Life and Conduct, Psalm 31, NLGB 254)
Estomihi, Holy Week, Chorale
For Quinquagesima Estomihi Sundays in Leipzig, Bach composed and presented four cantatas (BWV 22-23, 127, and 159). Two-part Cantatas BWV 22, “Jesus nahm zu sich die Zwölfe und sprach” (Jesus took the twelve to himself and spoke, Gospel, Luke 18:31, We go to Jerusalem), and BWV 23, “Du wahrer Gott und Davids Sohn” You true God and son of David), were premiered as test pieces on Quinquagesima Etomihi Sunday, February 7, 1723, and repeated as part of the first cycle a year later on September 20, 1724. Both last about 20 minutes each. Bach also composed chorale Cantata 127 in 1725, “Herr Jesu Christ, wahr' Mensch und Gott” (Lord Jesus Christ, true God and man). Cantata 159, “Sehet, wir gehen hinauf gen Jerusalem (See! We are going up to Jerusalem, BWV 159), was composed in 1729 to a Picander text and was Bach’s last regular cantata presented in Leipzig on a regular basis, beginning with BWV 22-23 on Estomihi 1723.
Insight into Bach’s extensive treatment of the Estomhi Sunday when the two-part gospel, Luke 18: 31-43 (to Jerusalem, blind man healed) predicts the events of events of Holy Week and Easter, as well as the significance of the uses of the German Agnus Dei and its “Have mercy” litany are found Robin A. Leaver’s essay, “Bach and the German Agnus Dei.”4 Each of these topics is cited at length:
“In Lutheran tradition at the time of Bach the link between Estomihi and Good Friday was understood,” says Leaver (Ibid.: 170). On the Sunday before Lent, also considered the “Passion Sunday before Lent,” the Gospel
Luke 18: 31-43 (Jesus, “We go up to Jerusalem”; Miracle, “The blind man receives sight”). The Estomihi gospel predicts the Passion on Good Friday of Holy Week. In between, the Lenten season (the period of self-examination and preparation for Holy Week) had fasting, simple music, and penitential prayers, both psalms and Luther’s Litany with its emphasis on the three-fold appeal, “Have mercy on us” (Kyrie eleison, Erbarm dich) found both at the beginning of the Mass Kyrie and closing Agnus Dei).
The Quinquagesima Estomihi Sunday Gospel (Luke 18:31-43) has two distinct episodes, of Jesus telling the disciples of going to Jerusalem and his coming Passion as well as the miracle of sight restored to a blind man begging near Jericho. Complete text is the Martin Luther German translation (1545), with the English translation Authorised (King James) Version [KJV] 1611; for complete texts, see BCW Readings, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Read/Estomihi.htm.
Cantata 22 deals with the gospel going to Jesus and the disciples going to Jerusalem and the prediction of the Passion. After the sermon and during communion distribution, Cantata 23 “expounds the prayer pf the blind man “who hears the noise of the crowd around Jesus passing by on its way from to Jerusalem via Jericho, calls for mercy (“Jesus, Son of David, have mercy on me”), and receives his sight,” Leaver observes (Ibid.: 164).
The German Agnus Dei (Christe, du Lamm Gottes; Christ thou lamb of God), observes Leaver, who also did the OCC: JSB Cantata 123 essay “echoes the cry of the blind man and articulates for the attending congregation a subtle prayer, ‘Christ, thou lamb of God that takest away the sins of the world, have mercy on us.”
The subject of Leaver’s essay is Bach’s “intricate interlacing of [related] musical themes, but also an overlapping of textual associations (Ibid.: 164). Leaver begins with Bach’s triple use of three chorales in the 1725 Estomihi chorale Cantata 127, “Herr Jesu Christ, wahr' Mensch und Gott” (Lord Jesus Christ, true God and man), Paul Eber’s 1562 catechism justification hymn with two Passion chorales, “Christe du Lamm Gottes” in the orchestra and “O sacred head now wounded” in the bass and basso continuo. Leaver goes on two show the melodic and textual connections between “Christe du Lamm Gottes” and “The Kyrie” closing from Luther’s German Litany (1529) in the opening of the Mass in F, BWV 233a that quotes both German and Latin and probably was composed in Weimar. The chorale fantasia “Christe du Lamm Gottes,” probably was composed for the Weimar/Gotha 1717 Passion, and was repeated to close the 1725 chorale version of the St. John Passion, BWV 245.
Luther’s Litany closes with: “O du Gottes lamm, das der Welt Sünde trägt, erbarm dich über uns!” repeated twice and ending with “ . . . verleih uns steten Fried!” (O you lamb of God, who bears the sins of the world, have mercy on us . . . grant us everlasting peace!). Then, “Christe erhöre uns!” (Christ hear us!) is followed by the “Kyrie, Christe, Kyrie eleison.” Francis Browne BCW English translation is found at Bach cites a few lines from Luther’s Litany http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Texts/Chorale064-Eng3.htm. Information on Luther’s Litany text and melody are found at BCW, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/CM/Die-Litanei.htm. Bach uses a few lines from Luther’s Litany in Cantata 18 for Sexagesima Sunday in (no. 3), tenor recitative prayer and interspersed Chorale (Litany): recit., “Mein Gott, hier wird mein Herze sein” (My God, here will my heart be); Chorale: “Du wollest deinen Geist und Kraft zum Worte geben” (May you give your spirit and power to your word), etc. Bach also uses the Luther Litany phrase, SATB chorus “Den Satan unter unsre Füße treten” “Let Satan be trampled beneath our feet” in the bass recitative (no. 5) of chorale Cantata BWV 41 “Jesu, nun sei gepreiset” (Jesus, now be praised”) for New Year’s Day 1725.
Leaver also shows that Psalm Tone 1 is the basis from the “Kyrie” in Luther’s Deutsche Messe (1526), as variants of the Zahn melody 8607b (Ibid.: 169). Bach’s setting of Luther’s text, Kyrie, Gott Vater in Ewigkeit (Have mercy, God the Father, forever), published in Wittenberg in 1541, with music published in Dresden in 1625, is found in the extended plain chorale setting, BWV 371, as well as the Clavierübung III, German Organ Mass setting, BWV 671. The full text and translation (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clavier-Übung_III) are:
Kyrie, Gott Vater in Ewigkeit,
groß ist dein Barmherzigkeit,
aller Ding ein Schöpfer und Regierer.
Christe, aller Welt Trost
uns Sünder allein du hast erlöst;
Jesu, Gottes Sohn,
unser Mittler bist in dem höchsten Thron;
zu dir schreien wir aus Herzens Begier,
Kyrie, Gott heiliger Geist,
tröst', stärk' uns im Glauben
allermeist daß wir am letzten End'
fröhlich abscheiden aus diesem Elend,
O Lord the Father for evermore!
We Thy wondrous grace adore;
We confess Thy power, all worlupholding.
Have mercy, Lord.
O Christ, our Hope alone,
Who with Thy blood didst for us atone;
O Jesu! Son of God!
Our Redeemer! our Advocate on high!
Lord, to Thee alone in our need we cry,
Have mercy, Lord
Holy Lord, God the Holy Ghost!
Who of life and light the fountain art,
With faith sustain our heart,
That at the last we hence in peace depart.
Have mercy, Lord.
“Christe, du Lamm Gottes’ Text/Music
Cantata 23, “In the concluding Choral Bach uses the melody and words of the Antiphon, ‘Christe, du Lamm Gottes.’ Words and melody appear together in the Pfalz-Neuburg Kirchenordnung (Nürnberg, 1557), and obviously have a pre-Reformation association,” says Charles S. Terry in Bach’s Chorals, Part 2, Cantatas & Motets.5 The words of the Choral are a prose translation of the “Agnus Dei,” and are found in Low German in the Brunswick Kirchenordnung of 1528, and in High German in the Saxon Kirchenordnung of 1540. The dorian melody may derive from a Gregorian tone (e.g. Liber usualis, Mass IV) and was set as an Orgelbüchlein chorale, BWV 619, in Weimar, says Peter William in The Organ Music of J. S. Bach.6
NLGB Gesima Settings
Bach had considerable freedom to chose and use chorales during the Pre-Lenten Time, as he had for the omnes tempore (Ordinary Time) of Epiphany and Trinity. His hymnbook, Das Neu Leipzig Gesangbuch of 1682 listed various such hymns for all three Sundays: Septuagesima, Sexagesima, and Quinquagesima Estomihi.
For Septuagesima Sunday the NLGB-listed hymns are: “Vater unser im Himmelreich”; “Ich ruft zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ”; “O Herre Gott, dein Göttlich Wort”; and “Es ist das Heil uns kommen her.” The NLGB notes that the Johann Hermann Schein 1627 Cantional Leipzig Songbook also lists the same four chorales under the NLGB omnes tempore heading “Vom Kreutz/Verfolung und Anfechtung” (Cross, Persecution and Challenge; Chorales Nos. 275-304). The Schein heading continues for Sexagesima Sunday (“Ich ruf zu dir” and “Ach Gott vom Himmel siehe darein”). Quinquagesima Estomihi Sunday carries the Schein heading “Von der Beich und Buß” (Confession and Penitence) that is cross-referenced for the NLGB de tempore Passiontide (Lent), “Vom Leiden und Sterben Jesu Christi” (Suffering and Death of Jesus), Chorales Nos. 61-85). The four chorales for Quinquagesima are: “Durch Adams Fall ich ganz verderbt,” “Die Propheten han geprophezeit” (not set by Bach), “O wir armen Sünder,” and “Sündiger Mensch schau wer du bist” (not set by Bach).
Bach’s Lenten Chorale Settings
Lent (Passiontide) (Suffering & Death of Jesus Christ, NLGB 61-84) [also see Death and the Grave (Dying)] (7 Orgelbüchlein OB set, 5 OB not set, 1 OB fragment)
21. BWV 618 — O Lamm Gottes, unschuldig; BWV 401(PC), BWV 656 (a)(18); BWV 1085(MC), 1095(NC), Emans 152 (D); BWV 244/1(soprano), SBCB44 (Z6283)
22. BWV 619 — Christe, du Lamm Gottes (Agnus Dei); BWV 23/4(EC)=BWV245/40a, BWV233a, SBCB39 (Z58)
23. BWV 620 — Christus, der uns selig macht; BWV 245/15,37(PC), BWV 283=?BC D1(PC), SBCB40-41,42-43 (Z5283), BWV 747(MC), Emans 46(MC)-D
24. BWV 621 — Da Jesus an dem Kreuze stund (Seven Last Words); BWV 1089(PC), SBCB46 (Z 1706), Emans 48(MC); = “In dich hab, ich gehoffet her”
25. BWV 622 — O Mensch, bewein dein Sünde groß; BWV 244/29, BWV 402(PC), SBCB54-55 (Z8303; BWV 622 variant(Emans 153), Anh. 61(MC)-D; = Es sind doch selig alle”
26. BWV 623 — Wir danken dir, HJC, dass du für uns gestorben; BWV 1096(NC); See OB 149, 6283Christe, der du bist Tag und Licht
27. BWV 624 — “Hilf, Gott, daß mir's gelinge” (Z4329); BWV 343(PC), SBCB45 (also Praise & Thanks, Easter)
OB 28. O Jesu, wie ist dein Gestalt (Z8360); BWV 1094(NC)*
OB 29. O Traurigkeit, o Herzeleid (fragment, Z1915), BWV Anh. 200frag.)*; BWV 404(PC)
OB 30. Allein nach dir, HJC, Verlanget mich (1 stanza) (Z8544, or others?) (NLGB 360 Death & Dying, Batholomäus Gesius, Z8541); Michael Praetorius, Gesamtausgabe der musikalischen Werke (ed. F. Blume, Wolfenbuttel, G. Kallmeyer, 1928)
OB 31. O(Ach) wir armen Sünder (“Ehre sei dir, Christe, der du Leides Not); BWV 407(PC), SBCB52-53 (Z8187 h), BWV 1097(NC)*; see OB 5, BWV 603
OB 32. Herzliebster Jesu, was hast du verbrochen; BWV 1093(NC)*; BWV 244/3,46(PC), BWV 245/17, SBSC48 (Z983), Emans 105, 103(PC)-D
OB 33. Nun gibt mein Jesus gute Nacht (340c); cf. So gibst du nun, mein Jesu, gute Nacht (Z849); BWV 412(PC), 501
Good Friday Vespers (4 OB set above, 2 others)
-- “Da Jesus an dem Kreuze stund” (7 Last Words); Vespers 1; see OB 24, BWV 621
-- “O Lamm Gottes unschuldig”; Vespers 2; see OB 21, BWV 618
-- “Herr Jesu Christ, dich zu uns wend”; Vespers 3; see OB 49. BWV 632 (Pentecost)
-- “Ecce quomodo moritur justus” (Jacob Gallus, 1577, 4 vv motet, Isaiah 57, NLGB 85a, Suffering & Death of Jesus): Vespers 4;
-- “O Trauigkeit, o Herzeleid”; Vespers 5; see OB 29, BWV Anh. 200 frag.); BWV 247, SBCB50 (Z1915)
-- “Nun danket alle Gott” (Rinkart, NLGB 234 Christian Life& Conduct) Zahn 5142; Vespers 6; see Christian Life
-- “Ach stirbt denn so mein allerliebestes Leben”; SBCB56 (Z1831a); = Ach Herr, erhör mein Seufzen”
-- “O hilf Christe, Gottes Sohn”; BWV 1084(PC)=BC D-5/14a
-- “Jesu, Leiden, Pein und Tod” (NLGB 77, Zahn 6288b); BWV 245/11+,14, 28; BWV 355(PC)=?247/21, SBCB47 (Z6288b); = “Jesu Kreuz, Leiden und Pein”
-- “O Welt, ich muss dich lassen/”;BWV 395(PC), BWV 244/10,36(PC); BWV 245/11(PC), BWV 247/7=BWV393(PC); = O Welt, sieh’ hier dein Leben,” SBCB51 (Z2293b); = “Nun ruhen aller Wälder” (see OB151)
AMB – Anna Magdalena Buch
AS = Alternate setting
CP = Chorale Partitas, BWV 765-771
Cü III = Clavierübung III (Mass & Catechism Chorales), BWV 669-689
D = Doubtful work of JSB
KC = Kirnberger Chorales, BWV 690-713
MC = Miscellaneous Chorale Preludes, 714-64, etc.
NC = Neumeister Chorale Collection, BWV 1090-1120
OB = Orgelbüchlein Collection, BWV 599-644
PC = Plain Chorale, BWV 250-438, etc., c.1730
SBCB = Sebastian Bach’s Chorale Buch c.1740
SC = Schubler Chorales, 645-50 1746
SG = Schmelli Gesangbuch 1736
18 = Great 18 (Leipzig) Organ Chorale Collection, BWV 651-668
CH = Communion (& vespers) hymn
GH – Gradual Hymn (between Epistle & Gospel), Hymn de tempore
PH = Pulpit Hymn before sermon
CC = Chorale Cantata, (CC) = Chorale Chorus
EC = Elaborated Chorale setting
OC = Organ Chorale
EOC = Emans Organ Chorales = NBA KB IV/10 (2007)
NLGB = Das Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch> 1682 (Gottfried Vopelius)
Z = Johannes Zahn Melody Catalogue
1 Source, BCML Cantata 65 Discussion Part 4, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/BWV65-D4.htm.
2 Stiller, Johann Sebastian Bach and Liturgical Life in Leipzig, Ed. Robin A. Leaver (Concordia Publishing: St. Louis, 1985: 238).
3 Petzoldt, Bach Kommentar: Theologisch Musikwissenschaftlicke Kommentierung der Geistlichen Vokalwerke Johann Sebastan Bachs; Vol. 2, Die Geistlichen Kantaten vom 1. Advent bis zum Trinitatisfest; Internationale Bachakademie Stuttgart (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 2007: 527).
4 Leaver, “Bach and the German Agnus Dei,” A Bach Tribute: Essays in Honor of William H. Scheide (Kassel/Chapel Hill NC: Bärenreiter/Hinshaw, 1993: 163-171).
5 Johann Sebastian Bach, Bach’s Chorals. Part I: 2 The Hymns and Hymn Melodies of the Cantatas and Motetts, by Charles Sanford Terry (Cambridge University Press, 1915-1921). 3 vols. Vol. 2. February 21, 2016. http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2056.
6 Williams, The Organ Music of J. S. Bach, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, 2003: 273f).