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Passions-Pasticcio BWV 1088
General Discussions

Bass in BWV 1088

David Glenn Lebut Jr. wrote (November 2, 2004):
Could anybody point out to me what the progression in the Figured Bass is for BWV 1088? The copy I have of it (which comes from the NBA edition) does not put down the figures for the Continuo.

Bradley Lehman wrote (November 2, 2004):
[To David Glenn Lebut Jr.] I don't have a copy; is one readily available somewhere outside the NBA?

Looking at the first three bars in the BWV (catalog), it appears to be (over a tonic pedal point): i, v (6/4), i, viio (#7/4/2), i. And those are decorated with suspensions in the middle voice. That second harmony in there is arguably 6/4/2 instead of 6/4, since it touches on the A briefly in the top voice, but really it's the same overall effect: tonic, sliding to subdominant, back briefly through tonic (in passing) to the diminished 7th degree, then sliding back to tonic. Pretty typical stuff. See, for example, the similar beginning of the SJP (BWV 245) "Herr, unser Herrscher", decorating its tonic with the same basic progressions and suspensions.

Derivation of missing continuo figures isn't all that difficult: just count up diatonic notes from the bass, write down the positions that identify the chord uniquely enough (see Bach's manuscripts teaching this...), and include any accidentals that have modified it. So many of these progressions are stock harmonic patterns anyway, they hardly need to be written down...so, they aren't.

Seems to me that our resident anti-academics (i.e. those who claim already to know everything relevant about music theory and performance practices, while disdaining instruction) should get together, working from the NBA as a clean score, and compose a fully figured, fully realized performing edition. It would be a good exercise, and really shouldn't take more than an hour (seriously!) as the piece is short, if coming to it with the same basic skills that Graun's players obviously had. This is all improvisatory stuff, just play through the piece a couple of times and know how it goes...no need to write it down, really, except maybe to codify some realization that turned out well.

[Sorry, a little grouchy this morning....]

In that same Graun pastiche-passion, what are the changes he made in the borrowing of the first movement of BWV 127?

Thomas Braatz wrote (November 2, 2004):
Bradley Lehman wrote:
>>In that same Graun pastiche-passion, what are the changes he made in the borrowing of the first movement of BWV 127?<<
NBA I/41 on BWV 127/1(Variant); BWV 1088 and BWV deest "Der Gerechte kommt um"

On p. VI of the foreword to NBA I/41, there is the following summary:

[>>Of all the works originating from Bach's tenure in Leipzig, the 'Cantata for Passiontide' "Wer ist der, so von Edom kömmt" is one the most puzzling. It turns out to be a rather extensive redesigning/reshaping/rearrangement of Carl Heinrich Graun's Passiontide Cantata, "Ein Lämmlein geht und trägt die Schuld," which has been expanded by adding 11 movements by other composers. There is no conclusive evidence which would explain how much of this adaptation/revision by Johann Christoph Altnickol might have relied upon an older adaptation/revision which might possibly be one of J. S. Bach's own reworkings of this material. In any case, as late as 1865 there was still a copy of the score of Graun's Passiontide Cantata in the library of the St. Thomas School in Leipzig. Carl Hermann Bitter, at that time, believed he might have uncovered/discovered a few entries in Bach's own handwriting. The chorale chorus movement taken from BWV 127/1 (mvt. 19) together with the bass arioso movement (BWV 1088){mvt. 20} stand at the opening of part two of this pasticcio; the choral movement "Der Gerechte kommt um" (mvt. 39) was added at the appropriate point after Jesus' death. The latter composition consisting of a five-part chorus appears to be a reworking/arrangement of a motet "Tristis est anima mea' perhaps incorrectly attributed to Johann Kuhnau. There is no definite proof that either the recitative (BWV 1088) or the arrangement of the motet are by Bach, although stylistically it might seem to be so. It could, however, be possible that all three movements were originally taken from a lost, late Passion by J. S. Bach.<<]

The NBA I/41 KB pp. 56 ff. indicates the primary source as a copy of a score of these three movements by Johann Christoph Altnickol completed c. 1755. After the latter's death, it was passed by Altnickol's wife to her half-brother CPE Bach. Georg Poelchau, a manuscript collector in Berlin, acquired it from the heirs of CPE and in 1844 it came to the BB (State Library in Berlin.) In the 1780's shortly before his death, CPE wrote the title "Passion | von | Graun;" and added later: "with some excellent choruses and 4- and 5-voice fugues." Poelchau, after acquiring the score, wrote a note as follows: "This manuscript came from the collection of CPE Bach and probably was copied by him while he was still very young; the title page stems from the last years of his life."

Altnickol copied all of BWV 127/1 (mvt. 19) and the 1st 5 measures of the arioso, BWV 1088 (mvt. 20); all the rest he delegated to another unknown copyist after he established the key signatures and instrumentation. Later he made corrections and added movement titles.

Mvt. 19 'Chorus': "Herr Jesu Christ, wahr' Mensch und Gott" definitely Bach's own composition, a reworking of BWV 127/1, an Estomihi cantata.

Mvt. 20 'Recitativo': "So heb ich denn mein Auge sehnlich auf." At the top of the mvt. "Recit." and at the end of the mvt. 'Aria' (this is in keeping with Bach's habit of indicating at the end of one mvt. The following mvt. still to come.

Mvt. 39 'Chorus': "Der Gerechte kommt um" - only the vocal parts are indicated, no further instrumentation is given, but in mss. 12-13 above the Soprano I part, the words "Travers. Con Soprano" are noted. From all appearances, this is a choral mvt. that Bach adapted or modified.

For the latter mvt. (39), Poelchau and another unknown copyist prepared a set of parts (prior to 1836). Along with the vocal parts, there are also 2 violin parts, a viola part, a 'Fondamt.' (probably the bc. part) - the two oboe parts that had been prepared were still missing.

Missing sources:

1. a copy of the score of Graun's Passiontide Cantata - lost/destroyed 1943 in Leipzig. Concerning the latter there are two bits of documentary evidence: Christian Theodor Weinlig, (1780-1842) prepared a catalog of the works in the library of the St. Thomas School in 1823. There were 8 passions in score form and with parts: one by Graun, one by Fasch and 6 by unknown composers. In 1865, Carl Hermann Bitter (1813-1885) wrote: "At first we were told that there were no more compositions by Bach in the library, but upon closer inspection we found the following:

an Oratorium Passionale by Graun (from the years 1725-1735, composed in Braunschweig) which had the title and list of instruments, there were corrections and several additions as well as the conclusion (concluding chorus?) Also the titles of a recitative and 2 arias in the appendix; also the title, music and text of a chorale, which was probably set by Bach for this purpose and without a doubt stem from his hand.

It is questionable whether the Graun's Passion listed by Weinlig and the passion music referred to by Bitter are one and the same composition, but they may both have been referring to something similar. Somewhat less probable would be a situation where the St. Thomas School had 2 or more manuscript copies of Graun's Passiontide Cantata and that one of these would have been a pasticcio-version of the orig.

The NBA editors suspect that there is no direct connection (a dependency relationship) between the Altnickol and Weinlig/Bitter versions, so that it mean that mvts. 19, 20, 39 of the Altnickol copy were not contained in the Weinlig/Bitter version. In any case, Telemann's chorus "Wer ist der, so von Edom kömmt" (this is mvt. 1 of Altnickol's copy) would not have been contained in Graun's Passiontide Cantata. It is more likely that the Graun's "Oratorium Pasionale" referred to by Bitter is the less admirably arranged version of Graun's Passiontide Cantata "Ein Lämmlein geht." The Weinlig/Bitter version is very unlikely as far as having supplied the source for Altnickol's version.

There must also have been another variant of the pasticcio-version original that Altnickol used as a source. This is borne out by the printed text for a performance of Graun's Passiontide Cantata from the time soon after 1757. This text shows variants of the text recorded by Altnickol.

For mvt. 19 "Herr Jesu Christ, wahr' Mensch und Gott", the editors used for comparision Bach's autograph score of the same music along with the original set of parts.

Alfred Dürr wrote an article for the Bach-Jahrbuch, 1988, pp. 205 ff. on the adaptation/reworking/arrangement of BWV 127/1 as it appears in the pasticcio.

Dürr claims that only Bach could have undertaken all the changes involved. Many of the mistakes are caused by simple transposition errors. The reasons for the transposition become clear upon closer inspection, but there does not seem to be a really compelling reason for undertaking this transposition. Possibly it became necessary for the sequence of keys moving from C minor (mvt. 18) to F major (original of BWV 127/1) or Eb as mvt. 19 of the pasticcio; to G minor/Eb major in mvt. 20 and Eb major in mvt. 21. But it does not make much sense to have the transverse flutes playing in Eb major, a key rarely used by this instrument:

1st version (2/11/1725) 2nd version (1730s or 1740s?)
Key F major Eb major
Two recorders two transverse flutes
No dashes Dashes over repeated 8th notes
The bc bass line drops to a low c
Bass remains at higher
octave,does not touch Bb

Text:

There is a textual connection in word choice and rhyme between the text of the bass arioso "So heb ich denn mein Auge sehnlich auf" and the tenor accompagnato "O Schmerz! Hier zittert das gequälte Herz" of the SMP (BWV 244). It might seem that Picander (Christian Friedrich Henrici) could have been the author, but this still needs further confirmation.

Conclusion:

It is uncertain whether Graun's Passiontide Cantata "Ein Lämmlein geht und trägt die Schuld" or even the pasticcio version (Altnickol's copy) were ever performed under Bach's direction. We can not be certain about Bitter's qualifications to render an opinion on what was in Bach's handwriting or not. However, it is still possible that Bach may have performed Graun's above-named cantata with a few unsubstantial changes during the last years of his (Bach's) life and that it was Altnickol who undertook the major changes (as contained in his score copy) around 1755 for a performance in Naumburg. This might mean that the 3 mvts. under scrutiny here (mvts. 19, 20, 39) were added for this occasion from other sources at his disposal. He may have lifted these mvts. from a lost Passion by his father-in-law, J. S. Bach. If this were the case, then such a 'final' Passion by Bach would have been 'composed' after 1733. It is clear that the chorale mvt. 19 in Altnickol's version was not copied directly from Bach's autograph score of BWV 127/1. It is therefore more likely that mvts. 19 and 20 came from such a late Passion. This would make it much more likely that BWV 1088 (mvt. 20) was a genuine composition by Bach. The composer of the motet "Tristis est anima mea" can not yet be determined with any degree of certainty. Kuhnau's authorship still remains in question. Nor can it be determined what the reason for the adaptation of the choral mvt. "Der Gerechte kommt um" from the motet "Tristis est anima mea" might have been. The use of the obbligato instruments in mvt. 39 parallels the use of instruments in the choral mvts. O Jesu Christ, meins Lebens Licht" BWV 118. This might make it more likely that Bach himself was the arranger and not one of his students. If this is the case, then this arrangement could be included in the list of similar arrangements by Bach of works by Johann Kaspar Kerll, Antonio Caldara and others.

The complete version of the Passiontide cantata, "Wer ist der, so von Edom kömmt" (Pasticcio) appeared in print in 1997 as volume 1 of the edition called "Denkmäler Mitteldeutscher Barockmusik" Series II, Composers of the 17th and 18th Centuries in Central Germany. This was based entirely on Altnickol's score. The editors were Andreas Glöckner and Peter Wöllny.

The recitative (BWV 1088) has no definite instruments assigned to the parts. Possibly two violoncellos, or two violas da gamba or two bassoons could be used as obbligato instruments. Since a solo bassoon is used later on for the tenor aria (mvt. 32 of the pasticcio), it seems reasonable to assume that they might have been employed here as well.

 

Passions-Pasticcio BWV 1088 - Recordings

Aryeh Oron wrote (November 8, 2004):
Following the recent discussion of the Arioso from the Passion-Pasticcio BWV 1088, I have added a page for this work: http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Vocal/BWV1088.htm
So far I have found only one recording of the Arioso that J.S. Bach composed.

a. Are there any more recordings of the Arioso?
b. Are there any complete recordings of the Passion-Pasticcio (with the music of C.H. Graun, G.P. Telemann, J. Kuhnau, J.C. Altnikol, and J.S. Bach)?

Arie Goud wrote (November 8, 2004):
[To Aryeh Oron]
Complete recording:
PASSIONS-PASTICCIO: "Wer ist der,so von Edom kommt"
M Lins; R Popken; M Brutscher; H G Wimmer,
Rheinische Kantorei und Das kleine Konzert olv Hermann Max
Label Capriccio.

David Glenn Lebut Jr. wrote (November 9, 2004):
[To Arie Goud] Unfortunately, the only copy being sold of this recording (on jpc.com) is no longer available, and the recording itself is out of print.

John Pike wrote (November 9, 2004):
[To David Glenn Lebut Jr.] I ordered a recording at: http://www.achat-cd.com/artist/Bach+_+Telemann+_+Graun/0

 

Discussions in the Week of March 31, 2013

William Hoffman wrote (March 31, 2013):
BWV 1088, Passion Pasticcio: Intro., Pastiches, Fugitive Notes, Etc.

The "Passion Pastiche After C. H. Graun" represents the culmination of the German Passion Oratorio tradition, emphasizing popular poetic and musical styles. It possibly was compiled in the late 1740s as Bach's final, required presentation for the Leipzig Good Friday Vespers. Its core music is the Carl Heinrich Graun (1704-59) Passion Cantata, "Ein lämmlein geht und trägt die Schuld" (A lambkin goes fourth and carries our guilt), c.1730. The resulting hybrid pasticcio in two parts, containing a plethora of alternating choruses, arias, chorales, and recitatives, also features music of Georg Philipp Telemann (1681-1767) and three numbers provided by Bach, including an old-style motet, plus six chorale stanza settings of "Christus, der uns selig macht" (Christ, who makes us blessed), probably by Johann Christoph Altnikol (1720-59), Bach student/copyist and son-in-law.

The result is a veritable encyclopedia of Passion music emphasizing the popular literary and musical styles that came to dominate German music at mid-18th century. Beyond the "sentimental" (empfindsam) style of Graun, also found in his later "Der Tod Jesu" (The Death of Jesus), is the precursor gallant of Telemann's Palm Sunday Cantata, "Wer ist der, so von Edom kömmt"(Who is this that cometh from Edom(Sodom), as well as the old motet style of "Der Gerechte kömmt um" (The righteous perisheth), once attributed to Bach's predecessor, Johann Kuhnau, and the signature Passion Vesper chorale, "Chrustus, der uns selig macht" (Christ, who makes us blessed), in six harmonization's probably by Altnikol.

Besides various well-known Passion hymn texts - "O sacred head now wounded" and "Loving Jesus, what [law] have you broken" -- are biblical citations primarily from the Old Testament prophet Isaiah, Chapter 53 as well as various popular pietistic sentiments in Graun's work. In addition to Bach's orchestration of the motet are two numbers that begin Part 2: Chorale Cantata BWV 127/1 chorus, "Herr Jesu Christ, wahr' Mensch und Gott" (Lord Jesus Christ, truly man and God) from the 1725 Quinquagesima cantata, and the bass arioso, "So heb ich denn mein Auge sehnlich auf" (I lift my longing eye to Heav'n above).

The Passion Pasticcio possibly was performed by J.S. Bach in Leipzig, 1743-1748, and by Altnikol at the Thomaskirche in Leipzig on Good Friday, March 29, 1750. The score copy of Altnikol and an unidentified scribe date to c.1755 and were used in a performance of the work by Johann Wilhelm Cunis, also a Bach student (1741-47) as cantor in Frankenhausen, Thuringia after 1757.
[BWV 1088 Details: http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Vocal/BWV1088.htm.

Score description: The pasticcio in the hand of Altnikol and an unknown copyist has 42 numbers: 7 choruses (Nos. 1, 3, 7, 11, 17, 39, 41), 2 chorale choruses (19, 34), 10 chorales (2, 8, 12, 18, 24, 27, 30, 38, 40, 42), 3 accompanied recitatives (4, 25, 31), 11 arias (5, 10, 13, 15, 21, 23, 26, 29, 32, 35, 37) and 8 seccco recitatives (6, 9, 14, 16, 22, 28, 33, 36), and an arioso (20). The bulk of the music, 31 of 42 movements, comes from the Graun Passion Cantata, "Ein lämmlein geht und trägt die Schuld" (A lambkin goes and carries our guilt), composed c.1730 in Burnswick The work uses Italian-style music set to a purely poetic Passion oratorio text, author unknown, that intersperses popular chorales with choruses, recitatives, and arias. The pasticcio omits three chorales found in the original 34-movement Graun Passion: opening No. 1, chorale "Ein lämmlein geht und trägt die Schuld"; No. 32, "Weg, weg, mit dir, du schnöde Welt"; and the closing No. 34 "O Traugrigkeit."

Movements
Part 1
1. Chorus: Wer ist der, so von Edom kömmt (Telemann, TVWV 1:1581/1)
2. Chorale: Christus, der uns selig macht (Telemann, TVWV 1:1581/5)
3. Chorus: Fürwahr, er trug unsre Krankheit (Graun, No. 2, Isaiah 53:4a)
4. Recitative, acc. (S): So steigt mein Jesus in Geduld (Graun, No. 3)
5. Aria d.c. (S): Ihr Tropfen, fallt auf meine Brust (Graun, No. 4)
6. Recitative (T): Ich weiß, was die ihr selbst gelassene Vernunft (Graun, No. 5)
7. Chorus: Wir aber hielten ihn für den (Graun), No. 6, Isaiah 53:4b)
8. Chorale: Herzliebster Jesu (Graun, No. 7, EKG 60)
9. Recitative (A): Da dich dein Jünger selbst verrät (Graun, No. 8)
10. Aria d.s. (A): Was an Strafen ich verschuldet (Graun, No. 9)
11. Chorus: Er ist um unser Missetat willen verwundet (Graun, No. 10, Isaiah 53:5)
12. Chorale: Du trägst die Straffen meiner Schuld (Graun, No. 11)
13. Aria d.s. (T): Harte Marter, schwere Plagen (Graun, No. 12)
14. Recitative (S): Jetzt werd ich stark durch Christi Leidenskampf (Graun, No. 13)
15. Aria d.s. (S): Nimmst du die Kron' der Dornen (Graun, No. 14)
16. Recitative (A): Ja, ja, es geh' mir, wie es will (Graun, No. 15)
17. Chorus: Er war der Allverachtetste (Graun, No. 16, Isaiah 53:3)
18. Chorale: O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden (Graun, No. 17, EKG 63)
Part 2
19. Chorale Chorus: Herr Jesu Christ, wahr' Mensch und Gott, (Bach BWV 127/1)
20. Arioso (B): So heb' ich denn mein Auge sehnlich auf, (Bach BWV 1088)
21. Duet d.c. (SA): Sollt ich nicht auf Jesum sehn (Graun, No. 18)
22. Recitative: Die Macht, so meinen Heyland leiden läßt (Graun, No. 19)
23. Aria d.s. (S): Hier steht der Grund von meinem Glauben (Graun, No. 20)
24. Chorale: In der ersten Tagesstund (?Altnikol, Christus S. 2)
25. Recitative acc. (S): Der ungerechte Richter selbst (Graun, No. 21)
26. Aria d.c. (T): Arme Seel, zerschlagenes Herz (Graun, No. 22)
27. Chorale: Um sechs ward er nackt und bloss (?Altnikol, Christus, S. 4)
28. Recitative (S): Ja, ja, mein Heiland geht die Todesbahn (Graun, No. 23)
29. Aria d.c. (S): Ich lose mit, mein köstlich Teil (Graun, No. 24)
30. Chorale: Jesus schrie zur neunten Stunde (?Altnikol, Christus, S.4)
31. Recitative acc. (T): Ich sehe meinem Jesum ganz verlassen (Graun, No. 25)
32. Aria d.c. (T): Mich entseelt ein banger Schrecken (Graun, No. 26)
33. Recitative (T): Jedoch mein Glaube stärkt sich wieder (Graun, No. 27)
34. Chorus: Christus hat mit einem Opfer (Graun, No. 28; Hebr. 10:14/);
with Chorale (S), Nun giebt mein Jesu gute Nacht (FT II/277/1; melody EKG 174)
35. Aria d.s. (B): Nun darf ich mich nicht mehr entsetzen (Graun, No. 29)
36. Recitative (S): Ist Jesus tot (Graun, No. 30)
37. Aria d.c. (S): Zerbrich nur, Macht und Pracht der Erden (Graun, No. 31)
38. Chorale: Da hat man zur Vesperzeit (?Altnikol, Christus, S. 6)
39. Chorus (SSATB): Der Gerechte kommt um (?Kuhnau/Bach BWV deest)
40. Chorale: Da der Tag sein Ende nahm (?Altnikol, Christus, S.7)
41. Chorus d.c.: Zu meinem Heil, zur Glaubensstärke (Graun, No. 33)
42. Chorale: O hilf Christe, Gottes Sohn (?Altnikol, Christus, S.8)
http://www.amazon.com/Passions-Pasticcio-Bach-Graun-Telemann-Altnikol/dp/B007EMHC26

A review of the recording has just been posted on the internet, http://ayearwithbach.blogspot.com/, "A Year with Bach," by Laurence Price.


Bach's Motive, Method, opportunity

Bach's motive, method, and opportunity to "craft" this Passions Pasticccio had its genesis in his trials and tribulations with his employer, the Leipzig City Council, as well as the challenges of the various theological, musical, and literary currents converging in Leipzig during his tenure, beginning in 1723. Bach was required to present an annual liturgical Oratorio Passion based on the four Gospel accounts, to submit the interspersed poetic text in advance of printing for council approval, and to avoid music with operatic affects. By 1732, Bach had created three original musical settings of John, BWV 245; Matthew, BWV 244, and Mark, BWV 247, as well as presenting the "Keiser" Mark Passion and an anonymous Luke Passion, BWV 246

The death of Saxon ruler Augustus in 1733 enabled Bach in lieu of an annual Passion on March 3 to turn to the Latin Mass liturgy to compose Kyrie-Gloria music with old-style elements while seeking the title of Saxon Court Composer from Augustus' son and heir. Soon after, as Bach turned his vocal-composition interests to secular drammi per musica, he was able on Good Friday, April 23, 1734, to present a non-liturgical, poetic Passion oratorio, Gottfried Heinrich Stölzel's "Ein Lämmlein geht und trägt die Schuld" (A lambkind goes forth and carries our guilt). Its opening chorus is a setting of the Paul Gerhard (1690-1749) 10-stanza, 1648 Passion Song, with the chorale tune "Am Wasserflüssen Babylon"; of Wolfgang Dachstein (Strassburg: 1525).

For his required annual cantata cycles in 1735-36 and 1736-37, Bach presented two Stölzel collections, "String Music" and the "Names of Christ," based on text of popular pietist writer Benjamin Schmoltz. As a designated Dresden Court composer, Bach continued to present annual cantatas for the Saxon court birthdays and visits, while also exploring various styles of Latin church music and motets.

Meanwhile, Bach probably reperformed the St. Luke Passion, BWV 246, on Good Friday, April 8, 1735, and presented hisdefinitive version of the St. Matthew Passion, BWV 244, on March 29, 1736. The record shows no Passion performances on April 19, 1737, and April 4, 1738. For the Good Friday Vespers on March 27, 1739, Bach began his revision of the St. John Passion (its fourth version) but ceased after the first 10 movements. Bach had not received the Town Council's approval of the text before the performance. In an official entry from a Town Council representative, Bach complained that the council previously had approved the text (New Bach Reader, No. 208). As a result, there is the possibility that Bach presented a repeat of the popular Telemann "Brockes Passion," that had been introduced on Good Friday, March 26, 1717, in the Leipzig New Church (first Leipzig performance of a musical Passion), Gottfried Vogler, organist and music director. Eventually, on March 4, 1749, Bach presented his fourth and last version of his St. John Passion, virtually reverting to the music of the original 1724 version, with a few poetic text revisions in two arias and an arioso.

Bach's record of annual Passion performances has gaps in the 1740s: no performances in 1740, 1741, and 1743. Bach revived the St. Matthew Passion in 1742 and again about 1743-46. He repeated the St. Mark Passion in 1744, adding two arias, and the St. Luke Passion in 1745. The remainder of the record shows that in the last half of the 1740s, Bach turned to music of other composers, including a performance Handel's well-known Brockes Passion in 1746 followed by a pasticcio Passion in 1747 or 1748 involving a revival of the "Keiser St. Mark" oratorio Passion, filled out with seven arias from Handel's Passion [See FUGITIVE NOTES BELOW]

Background: Graun Pasticcio Passion

Given the fragmentary record of Bach Passion performances in the 1740s, the construction or evolution of the Graun Pasticcio Passion involves considerable collateral evidence regarding Bach's interests, methods, preferences and practices. Music and repertoire files at the St. Thomas Church, now lost, indicated that Bach may have performed one of two Graun Passion oratorios (cantatas) in the 1740s. "Ein Lammlein geht und trägt die Schuld," was composed about 1730 in Brunswick (Braunschweig), where he was a court composer, 1724-35). and repeated there in 1733 and in Copenhagen in 1744. "Kommt her and schaut" (Come here and shout), was first performed at Dresden before 1721, revised in Brunswick c.1725-30, and reperformed there after 1730. Both Graun Passions interweave paraphrases of scriptural narrative from all four Gospel Passion accounts, contemplative verse of an unknown author, and chorales. Between 1736-37, Handel "borrowed" 11 excerpts from "Kommt her und schaut," using them as choral counterpoint studies for "Alexander's Feast," two operas, and a wedding anthem. Graun's third Passion oratorio is the phenomenally popular "Der Tod Jesu" (The Death of Jesus) of 1755 (Berlin), finally displacing the various Brockes Passion settings popular since 1717.
[Carl Heinrich Graun, BCW Short Biography, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Lib/Graun-Carl-Heinrich.htm]


Bach had a Leipzig history of presenting popular, accepted Passion music of composers Keiser, Stölzel, Handel, and Telemann. Beginning in the 1730s he did various adaptations of his own vocal music as well as works of Palestrina, Kerll, Caldara, Pergolesi, Lotti, Pez, Durante, and others involving mostly Latin church music. There also is a history of Passion Pasticcios, centering on the Hamburg work of Reinhard Keiser. Various versions of the 1707 St. Mark Passion attributed to Keiser are found in Pasticcios Passions, including Bach's 1740s setting adding seven Handel arias, and a Göttingen score* that added five arias from Keiser's inaugural 1712 setting of the Heinrich Brockes Passion text (that influenced Bach's St. John Passion). Keiser's own annual Passion presentation revisions and borrowings in Hamburg were done about 1710-15 and in 1722 in Hamburg Johann Mattheson presented an omnibus pasticcio of four Brockes Passion settings of Telemann, Handel, Keiser, and himself. In addition, Bach scheduled performances of several Telemann cantatas in 1725 and 1734, as well as the two Stölzel cantata cycles in the mid 1730s. [*See Daniel R. Melamed's "Hearing Bach's Passions"; Oxford University Press, 2005: 82]


Graun Passion Genesis

With the Graun score of "Ein Lammlein geht und trägt die Schuld," in hand in the 1740s, Bach faced major challenges: expanding the work with effective music beginning both parts, adding chorales, finding a unifying theme or reference to major liturgical Passion actions beyond reflective sentiments, and using effective music at Christ's death.

The work is divided into two parts to fit the Good Friday Passion Vesper order in Leipzig that divides the Passion to be played before and after the sermon. Bach also had arranged music for two other works originally in one-part: The "Keiser" St. Mark Passion and the ?Molter St. Luke Passion, BWV 246. In 1726 Bach composed a plain chorale setting, "O hilf , Christe, Gottes Sohn" (O help, Christ, God's Son, S.8; "Christus, de runs selig macht"), BWV 1084/Bach Compendium, D-5b/6, and in 1730 composed a chorale setting of "Aus der Tiefe rufe ich" (Out of the depths I cry/De profundis), BWV 246/40a/BC D-6, for tenor, strings and continuo. Both are recorded in Hänssler Bach Akademie 2000 CDs, respectively, "Chorale Book, Vol. 79," Passions, and "Magnificat," Vol. 73, sacred music.

To give weight to the beginning of Part 2, two Bach works were employed. Here are Thomas Braatz' BCW notes, 11/2/04: "The chorale chorus movement taken from BWV 127/1 (mvt. 19) together with the bass arioso movement (BWV 1088){mvt. 20} stand at the opening of part two of this pasticcio; the choral movement "Der Gerechte kommt um" (mvt. 39) was added at the appropriate point after Jesus' death. The latter composition consisting of a five-part chorus appears to be a reworking/arrangement of a motet "Tristis est anima mea' perhaps incorrectly attributed to Johann Kuhnau. There is no definite proof that either the recitative (BWV 1088) or the arrangement of the motet are by Bach, although stylistically it might seem to be so. Altnickol copied all of BWV 127/1 (mvt. 19) and the 1st 5 measures of the arioso, BWV 1088 (mvt. 20); all the rest he delegated to another unknown copyist after he established the key signatures and instrumentation. Later he made corrections and added movement titles.
"The NBA I/41 KB (Andreas Glöckner, Cantatas for various secular oiccassions) pp. 56 ff. indicates the primary source as a copy of a score of these three movements by Johann Christoph Altnickol completed c. 1755. After the latter's death, it was passed by Altnickol's wife to her half-brother CPE Bach. Georg Poelchau, a manuscript collector in Berlin, acquired it from the heirs of CPE and in 1844 it came to the BB (State Library in Berlin.) In the 1780's shortly before his death, CPE wrote the title "Passion | von | Graun;" and added later: "with some excellent choruses and 4- and 5-voice fugues" [1790 Estate Catalog: 87) [Discussion (Thomas Braatz Notes), http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Vocal/BWV1088-Gen.htm].

Following the chorale chorus and before the resumption of the Graun Passion music, Bach composed and inserted an apparently radical parody of a dramatic dialogue (scena) from his St. Matthew Passion (SMP). These show Jesus' passion suffering and the believers' empathy and conviction. There is a textual connection in word choice and rhyme between the text of the new bass arioso "So heb ich denn mein Auge sehnlich auf," BWV 1088, and the tenor aria, "O Schmerz! Hier zittert das gequäHerz") and chorus accompagnato (below, indented) of the SMP (BWV 244/19). The arioso begins with the dictum of Psalm 121, Levavi oculos (I will life up my eyes). It is the first of series of 15 instructional Psalms called "A Song of degrees." Since Picander wrote the St. Matthew Passion text it is possible that he authored the arioso new text with overtones of the old.

So heb ich denn mein Auge sehnlich auf
(I lift my longing eye to Heav'n above)
und trete dir in deinem Lebenslauf,
(And emulate Thy life of perfect love,)
mein Heil beständig nach
(My savior, evermore,)
und kann ich dir in deiner Schmach,
(And though I have no balm in store)
in deinen herben Plagen, Was ist die Ursach aller solcher Plagen
(That thy red wounds be cured,)
nichts leichtern oder helfen tragen, Vermindern oder helfen tragen,
(Nor ease the scorn Thou hast endured,)
so lass ich dennoch nicht von dir, Ach, könnte meine Liebe dir
(Yet will I not depart from Thee,)
denn meine Ruhe find ich hier. Wie gerne bleib ich hier
(Who grant me peace eternally.)
[English translation, Roger Clement, Hänssler Bach Akademie CD 92/073, BCW http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Vocal/BWV243-Rilling.htm, Recording B-13]

O Schmerz!&#8232; O sorrow!&#8232; (BWV 244/19)
Hier zittert das gequälte Herz;&#8232; Here trembles his afflicted heart;&#8232;
Wie sinkt es hin, wie bleicht sein Angesicht!&#8232; How it sinks down, how pale his face!&#8232;
Was ist die Ursach aller solcher Plagen?&#8232;What is the cause of such torments?&#8232;
Der Richter führt ihn vor Gericht.&#8232; The judge leads him to judgement.&#8232;
Da ist kein Trost, kein Helfer nicht.&#8232; There is no comfort, no help at all.&#8232;
Ach! meine Sünden haben dich geschlagen; &#8232;Ah! my sins have struck you;
Er leidet alle Höllenqualen,&#8232; He suffers all the torments of hell,&#8232;
Er soll vor fremden Raub bezahlen. &#8232;He must pay for the robbery of others.&#8232;
Ich, ach Herr Jesu, habe dies verschuldet&#8232; I, ah Lord Jesus, have deserved this&#8232;
Was du erduldet.&#8232; What you are suffering.&#8232;
Ach, könnte meine Liebe dir,&#8232; Ah, if only for you my love could,&#8232;
Mein Heil, dein Zittern und dein Zagen &#8232;My salvation, lessen your trembling and your discouragement&#8232;
Vermindern oder helfen tragen,&#8232;Or help you to bear them,&#8232;
Wie gerne blieb ich hier! &#8232;How willingly I would remain here!
(translation, BCW, Francis Browne)

For the crucial death music, Bach had on hand a motet adaptation of a Passion adaptation that addresses the prophetic Isasiah elements found in Graun's choruses. About 1735, Bach underlaid Luther's German text, "Der Gerechte kömmt um" (The righteous perisheth), to the Jacob Händle Gallus (1550-91) SATB motet, "Ecce quando moritur justus" (Behold how the righteous man dies, Isaiah 57:1-2), from the Florilegium portense to an SSATB Passion motet setting of "Tristis est anima mea" (My soul is exceeding sorrowful; Matthew 26:37-38,51,56). It was attributed to Bach's Leipzig predecessor, Johann Kuhnau, and now possibly to Italian musical models of Francesco Durante or Antonio Lotti, the latter who worked in the Dresden Court, 1717-20.

In the German contrafaction, Bach "modified some of the passages in the music" and "wrote an obbligato instrumental accompaniment" (2 oboes, string, continuo) says Dr. Andreas Bomba (Liner notes, Edition Bachakademie Vol. 69 - Motets [CD]; BCW, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Other/Kuhnau-Motet-Gerechte.htm, Recordings German No. 4). The Gallus motet was as sung as liturgy at the end of the oratorio Passion Part 2 of the Good Friday Vespers and is found in Bach's Leipzig hymnbook, Neu Leipziger Gesangbuch (NLGB) 1682, Suffering & Death of Jesus Christ (Passion), No. 85a. It is quite possible that Bach in the mid-1730s was seeking an alternative to the Gallus traditional setting for the Vesper Service, that had settings of German hymns also found in the NLGB.

Der Gerechte kommt um, Isaiah 57:1-2, Motetto a 5 voci, BWV deest (No BWV number), BC C8

Der Gerechte kommt um,
Und niemand ist, der es zu Herzen nehme;
Und heilige Leute werden aufgerafft,
Und niemand achtet drauf.
Denn die Gerechten werden weggerafft vor dem Unglück;
Und die richtig vor sich gewandelt haben,
Kommen zum Frieden und ruhen in ihren Kammern.
[Martin Luther translation]

The righteous perisheth,
and no man layeth it to heart:
and merciful men are taken away,
none considering that
the righteous is taken away from the evil to come.
2b each one walking in his uprightness.
2a He shall enter into peace: they shall rest in their beds,
[King James Version]

Ecce quomodo moritur Justus (Isaiah 57:1-2; Jacob Gallus, NLGB No. 85a)

Ecce quomodo moritur justus
et nemo percipit corde.
Viri justi tolluntur
et nemo considerat.
A facie iniquitatis sublatus est justus
et erit in pace memoria eius:
In pace factus est locus ejus
et in Sion habitatio ejus.
Et erit in pace memoria ejus.

Behold how the righteous man dies
And no one understands.
Righteous men are taken away
And no one considers:
The righteous man has been taken away from present iniquity
And his memory shall be in peace.
In peace is his place
And in Sion is his homestead.
And his memory shall be in peace

"Tristis est anima mea" (My soul is sorrowful even to death), Motetto a 5 voci

Tristis est anima mea usque ad mortem:
sustinete hic, et vigilate mecum:
nunc videbitis turbam, quæ circumdabit me:
Vos fugam capietis, et ego vadam immolari pro vobis.

Ecce appropinquat hora, et Filius hominis
tradetur in manus peccatorum.

R.
My soul is exceeding sorrowful, even unto death;
tarry ye here and watch with me:
now shall ye see the multitude which shall come about me:
and ye shall flee, and I go to be offered up for you.

V.
Behold, behold, behold, the hour is at hand
and the Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners.
and ye shall flee, and I go to be offered up for you.


Graun Passion Opening

Graun's opening plain chorale, a setting of the first stanza of Paul Gerhardt's popular 6-stanza, 1648 Passion song, "Ein lämmlein geht und trägt die Schuld," was replaced by the opening chorus of Telemann's 1722 Frankfurt Palm Sunday Cantata, "Wer ist der, so von Edom kömmt" (Who is this that cometh from Edom; Isaiah 63:1-3), TVWV 1:1585, set to an Erdmann Neumeister IV 1714 text (Nos. 2-4). Repeated in Frankfurt in 1735, the cantata is scored for SATB chorus and bass solo, 2 oboes, strings, and continuo.

The Telemann opening is a dramatic biblical scena setting in gallant style similar to Graun's, with a solemn tutti introductory chorus in Isaiah 63, asking the questions, interspersed with the bass (Jesus) in vivace tempo singing the first-person response (verses 1a and 3):

Wer ist der, so von Edom kommt, mit rötlichen Kleidern von Bozra? der so geschmückt ist in seinen Kleidern und einhertritt in seiner großen Kraft? "Ich bin's, der Gerechtigkeit lehrt und ein Meister ist zu helfen." (Jesaja 42.1) (Jesaja 42.3) 2 Warum ist dein Gewand so rotfarben und dein Kleid wie eines Keltertreters? (Offenbarung 19.13) 3 "Ich trete die Kelter allein, und ist niemand unter den Völkern mit mir. Ich habe sie gekeltert in meinem Zorn und zertreten in meinem Grimm. Daher ist ihr Blut auf meine Kleider gespritzt, und ich habe all mein Gewand besudelt. (Joel 4.13) (Offenbarung 14.20) [Luther translation]

Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah? this that is glorious in his apparel, travelling in the greatness of his strength? I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save. 2 Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel, and thy garments like him that treadeth in the winefat? 3 I have trodden the winepress alone; and of the people there was none with me: for I will tread them in mine anger, and trample them in my fury; and their blood shall be sprinkled upon my garments, and I will stain all my raime. [KJV]

The record shows that Telemann composed three cantatas based upon to the Isaiah passage as the dictum (TVWV, Telemann Vokalwerke Verzeichnis, Werner Mencke):

01:1584 Wer ist, der dort von Edom, solo voice; violin, continuo (Judica Sunday); text, M. Wilkens "Harmonischer Gottesdienst," Hamburg 1725 (Recit.-aria-recit-aria)
01:1585 Wer ist der, so von Edom(Sodom) kommt; SATB, 2 oboes, strings, continuo (Palmarum Sunday, Frankfurt 1722) [See details, above]
01:1586 Wer ist der, so von Edom kommt; SATB, 2 oboes, strings, continuo (Quinquagesima Estomihi, 1727); text Johann Friedrich Helbig; movement details: http://www.allmusic.com/album/telemann-kantaten-mw0001424290, Telemann cantata recording, scroll down to "Wer ist so."


Bach Leipzig predecessor Sebastian Knüpfer (1633-76), as the cantor of the Thomanerchor in Leipzig from 1657 to 1676 and director of the city's music, composed two similar cantatas:
Wer ist, der so von Edom Kommt - SAB, 4 violas, bc
Wer ist, der so von Edom Kommt - SSATB, 2 violins, 2 violas, 4 trombetti, timpani, bassoon, bc


Graun Passion Chorales

The Telemann Isaiah thematic opening was followed in the Pasticcio (No. 2) with the closing chorale from the same Telemann Cantata, TVWV 1585/5, "Christus, de uns selig macht" (Christ, who makes us blessed). "In order to bring the Pasticcio at least somewhat closer to the this [Leipzig liturgical] tradition, no fewer that six versus of the Passion hymn "Christus de runs selig macht" were inserted in the second part; these chorale movements depict the events chronologically, albeit in rhyming verse, and were probably composed by" Altrnikol, says Ingo Dorfmüller (English translation Clive Williams), in the 2012 recording liner notes (See BIBLIOGRAPHY below).

"Chrustus, der uns selig macht" uses the text of Michael Weisse, 1531, 8 stanzas, that is a German translation of the 14th century Latin hymn, "Patris Sapientia," for Canonical Hours of Good Friday. The melody, Jacobi, Judica, Ludecus, was first found in Weisse's Moravian Hymn-Book (Bohemian Bretheran) 1531, Zahn 6283b. The hymn is listed in Bach's NLGB) as No. 71, "Suffering & Death of Jesus Altknikol plain chorale harmonization, Pasticcio Nos. 24 (S.2), 27 (S.4), 30 (S.5), No. 38 (S.6), No. 40 (S.7), 42 (S.8).
Text and translation: Hymnoglyph, http://matthaeusglyptes.blogspot.com/2010/03/christus-der-uns-selig-macht.html. Weisse Biography, hymns, see: http://www.hymnary.org/person/Weisse_M, Biography (See More)

Bach use of "Chrustus, der uns selig macht" is found in plain chorale BWV 283 in E Major, possibly from the "Weimar Passion," BC D-1/6; Recording "Dying" (Hänssler Bach Akademie CDs, Chorale Book, Vol. 79); BCW, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Vocal/BWV250-438-Rilling.htm, CH-6. Bach also set the hymn as plain chorales in his St. John Passion, Nos. 15 and 37, and organ chorale preludes BWV 620 (Orgelbüchlein, Passiontide), and BWV 747 (Miscellaneous).

Other Graun Passion Chorales

Three chorales in the original Graun cantata were retained:

No. 8 (Graun cantata No. 7). "Herzliebster Jesu, was hast du verbrochen" (Loving Jesus, what [law] have you broken); text, Johann Hermann 1630, 15 stanzas; melody, Johann Krüger 1540 (Zahn melody 983); NLGB No. 72, "Suffering & Death of Jesus." (Graun cantata, No. 6, S. 1). Bach's uses are two plain chorales in the St. Matthew Passion, BWV 244/3 (S.1) and BWV 244/55 (S.4), and two in the St. John Passion, BWB 245/7 (S.7) and BWV 245/27 (S.8,9); two organ chorale preludes, one a Neumeister Passiontide chorale, BWV 1093 (1708), and the other listed in the Orgelbüchlein OB 32 (Passiontide), c.1714, but not set, possibly due to the existence of the earlier setting.
German text: http://www.cyberhymnal.org/non/de/herzlieb.htm
English translation: http://www.hymnary.org/text/o_dearest_jesus_what_law_hast_tho_broken

No. 12 (Graun cantata No. 11). "Du trägst die Straffen meiner Schuld" (You carry the penalty of my guilt); text, Fischer-Trumpel II, Nr. 185/10; Melody EKG 299; not found in the NLGB, no further information could be found. It is Stanza 10 of a possible setting of Psalm 125, Qui confidunt (They that trust in the Lord), referring to the final verse 5: "As for such as turn aside into their crooked ways, the Lord shall lead them forth with the workers of iniquity: but Peace shall be upon Israel." Psalm 125 also is "A Song of degrees," like Psalm 121, cited above in the bass arioso, No. 20, "So heb ich denn mein Auge sehnlich auf," BWV 1088.

No. 17 (closes Pasticcio Part 1; Graun cantata No. 16), "O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden" (O head full of blood and wounds), is known as the "Passion Chorale," known as "O sacred head now wounded." It is the signature plain chorale of the St. Mathew Passion with six settings and the St. Mark Passion with three.

Three chorales in the Graun Cantata were not used: opening No. 1, chorale "Ein lämmlein geht und trägt die Schuld"; No. 32, "Weg, weg, mit dir, du schnöde Welt"; and the closing No. 34 "O Traugrigkeit." Instead, they were replaced, respectively at the beginning and end of the PassionPasticco with Stanzas 1, 7 and 8 of the chorale, "Christus, der uns selig macht," in the settings, respectively of Telemann and the two probably by Altnikol.


PASSION EPILOGUE

About the time Altnikol copied the extant Passion Pasticcio after Graun and Graun's (and Telemann's) setting of "Der Tod Jesu" appeared in 1756, Johann Friedrich Doles became the Thomas Cantor in Leipzig.
Doles was reported to have performed three Passions of Bach. Later research found that two of the three Passions had connections to Altnikol: Bach's St. Matthew Passion in Altnikol's c.1756 copy that his pupil, Johann Christoph Farlau, was commissioned to produce for Doles in Leipzig, and the Passion oratorio. "Jesu, deine Passion," of Weimar Kapellmeister Ernst Wilhelm Wolf (1735-92) composed between 1756 and 1759 and copied be Altnikol, in the style of Graun's "Der Tod Jesu" but thought to be a missing Sebastian Bach Passion (see BIBLIOGRAPHY, Beisswenger, below). The other work is the apocryphal St. Luke oratorio Passion, BWV 246 that the Leipzig publisher Breitkopf apparently obtained from Friedemann and attributed to Bach in its 1761 catalogue.

These are mixed Passion oratorios, including hybrids that blend lyrical pieces divided into sections, with corresponding narrative passages. Richard Petzoldt in his 1974 Telemann biography (p.18) says: "As in Bach's Passions, Telemann's settings of these biblical texts are expanded by epic-lyrical commentaries. The composer took passages from Brockes, Hunold and Postel, Rector Müller (at Johanneum) and several teachers and pastors added further verses. Presumably Telemann inserted his own lines as well" (trans. Horace Fitzpatrick). While there are no Telemann Passion pasticcios, he occasionally parodied previous oratorio Passions for his annual Palm Sunday presentations.

In 1767, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (1714-1788), Sebastian's second son, succeeded Telemann and in 1769 continued the annual Holy Week presentations until his death in 1789. These include a pasticcio St. John Passion in 1772 with music of J. S. Bach, Telemann, Stölzel, and Homilius. Observers Paul Corneilson in his "Introduction," The Complete Works Edition (Passions) of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach:
All of (Emanuel Bach's Passions are pasticcios to a greater or lesser extent, and the &#64257;rst Passion according to St. John borrows the simple recitative for the biblical nafrom Telemann's setting of 1745, the one Passion that Telemann published. Other borrowed movements include the &#64257;nal chorus "Ruht wohl" from Johann Sebastian Bach's St. John Passion, BWV 245; two arias, a duet, and a chorus from Gottfried Heinrich Stölzel's 1749 Passion; and two arias, one with a parodied text, from Gottfried August Homilius's St. Mark Passion." Introduction." CPE Bach: The Complete Works (http://www.cpebach.org/pdfs/introductions/IV-7-1-Intro.pdf.

FUGITIVE NOTES:

Who's St. Mark-Brockes Passion?

Handel's Brockes Passion, HWV 48: "2nd performance: Good Friday August 1748 - October 1749 - Leipzig
Pasticcio Passion, based on Markus-Passion by Friedrich Nicolaus Brauns [previously attributed to Reinhard Keiser] with insertion of 7 arias from Brockes Passion by G.F. Handel - Good Friday April 31, 1747 or April 12, 1748 - Thomaskirche, Leipzig" [See BCW, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Other/Handel-Brockes-Passion.htm]. The seven Handel Brockes Passion arias (six for soprano!) and their placement in the Keiser-Handel Passion Pasticcio (HKPP) are:

No. 9. Sünder, schauet mit Furcht und Sagen" (soprano arioso, after KHPP No. 5);
No. 23, "Erwäge, ergimmte Natternbrut" (tenor aria, after KHPP No. 11);
No. 41, "Eilt, ihr angefocht'nen Seelen" (soprano aria), after KHPP No. 19);
No. 44, "Hier erstarrt mein Herz und Blut" (soprano aria, after KHPP, No. 20);
No. 47, "Was Wunder, daß der Sonnen pracht" (soprano aria, after KHPP No. 22);
No. 52, "Wie kommts, daß da der Himmel weint" (bass aria, after KHPP No. 24)
No. 55, "Wusch ab der Tränen scharfe Lauge" (soprano aria, after No. 27).

Recently, the Houston Bach Society performed the Keiser-Handel Pasticcio, apparently adding the published choruses and arias from Bach's St. Mark Passion and billing it as "an especially rare (1747) version," actually a Pasticcio Pasticico conflation. See, http://www.chron.com/entertainment/article/Bach-Society-revives-composer-s-St-Mark-Passion-4377211.php.
*The Carus-Verlag editon of the KHPP is available at: http://www.carus-verlag.com/index.php3?selSprache=1&BLink=KKWerk&WerkID=29716
*An expansive, ?definitive account of all three Bach presentations of the "Keiser" St. Mark Passion (1710-13, 1726, 1747-48) is found at Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Mark_Passion_pastiche.


A "Passion Pastiche" to trump all the others:

The University of Arizona Collegium Musicum will present an evening concert of choral music at 7:30 p.m. Monday (March 25) at the Arizona Senior Academy. Directed by Brent Rogers, a doctoral candidate in choral conducting, the Collegium performs music of the Baroque and Renaissance.
Coinciding with Holy Week, Monday's program features a "Passion Pastiche" of excerpts from musical settings of the Passion story, including Johann Sebastian Bach's "St. John Passion," George Friedrich Handel's "Brockes Passion," Heinrich Schutz's "St. Luke Passion," Reinhard Keiser's "St. Mark Passion" and Georg Philip Telemann's oratorio "Der Tod Jesu." (See: http://www.asa-tucson.org/marc-25-choral-group-presents-holy-week/

TIDBIT
Gottfried August HOMILIUS (1714-1785) composed a Passion cantata, "Ein Lämmlein geht und trägt die Schuld (HoWV 1.2); read more: http://www.musicweb-international.com/classrev/2007/Sept07/Homilius_carus83262.htm#ixzz2OxrI7jAM.


SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY

Beisswenger, Kirsten. Latin Church Music and Passions, Critical Commentary; Neue Bach Ausgabe NBA KB Vol.II/9, Bach-Archiv Leipzig, 2000. Discusses the publication of Bach's chorale contributions to the Luke Passion, BWV 246/46a, and the "Keiser" Mark Passion, BWV 500a, as well as the "Keiser"-Handel Pasticcio Passion, and the Wolf Passion Oratorio.

Dorfmüller, Ingo (English translation Clive Williams), "Between Baroque and Sentimentalism," Passion Pasticcio 2012 recording liner notes; Hermann Max, Das Kleine Konzert; 2EMI Classic CDs 02094 (see BCW, http://www.bach-cantatas.com/Vocal/BWV1088.htm).

Dürr, Alfred. "Zum Choralchorsatz `Herr Jesu Christ, wahr' Mensch und Gott,' BWV 127 (Satz 1) und Seiner Umbarung (Its Adaptation)," <Bach Jahrbuch> 1988: 205-09.

Glöckner, Andreas. "Johann Sebastian Bachs Auführungen zeitgenossicher Passions Musik," <Bach Jahrbuch 1977>: 106f, 116-18; summary, "Bach and the Passion Music of His Contemporaries," <Musical Times 116> 1975: 615ff.

Grubs, John W. "Ein Passions-Pasticcio der 18. Jahrhunderts" (translation Alfred Dürr), <Bach Jahrbuch 1965>: 10-42; music 26-30, 32, 33, 36-37; originally "An Eighteenth Century Passion Pasticcio on a Passion of Carl Heinrich Graun," MA thesis, Los Angeles CA, 1964.

Anthony Kozar wrote (April 2, 2013):
[To William Hoffman] Thank you, Will, for all of these wonderful and interesting details about the music surrounding the aria, BWV 1088, which previously had been nearly a complete mystery to me. And thank you for the pointer to the re-release of the Hermann Max recording which I am now looking forward to getting.

 

Passions-Pasticcio BWV 1088: Recordings | General Discussions

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Last update: řApril 25, 2013 ř17:25:15